Target parameter estimation and array features

Target parameter estimation and array features

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The primary objective of this chapter is to introduce the basic array signal processing methods. If such methods are to be implemented in a radar one has to take into account the particular interrelationships of the different radar processing blocks and one has to adapt the related processing. Therefore, another objective of this chapter is to analyse these problems. The antenna array has to be designed to fulfil all requirements of the radar which is typically a multitasking system. In fact, the requirements can often only be fulfilled in a compromise. These problems are pointed out. The principal array processing methods of deterministic pattern shaping and adaptive beamforming are presented as complementary techniques to be considered together. It depends on the application whether more emphasis is put on low sidelobes or on adaptive nulling. Angular super-resolution methods are presented as a special mode for critical tasks. It is shown that combining detection and monopulse estimation with adapted beamforming results in mutual influence that has to be accounted for. Most important are the implications on tracking algorithms. From these a number of rules for the radar management are derived. Results and conclusions presented in this chapter are not definite design rules but should be considered as exemplary to provide awareness where problems may arise.

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Basic concepts and results of array antennas
  • 1.2.1 Plane wave at single frequency
  • 1.2.2 Band-limited signals
  • 1.2.3 Narrowband and broadband beamforming
  • 1.2.4 Difference beamforming and monopulse estimation
  • 1.3 Design factors for arrays
  • 1.3.1 Influence of element patterns
  • 1.3.2 Thinned arrays
  • 1.3.3 Arrays with sub-arrays
  • Sub-array design procedure for low sidelobe sum and difference beams
  • Beam scanning at sub-array level and sub-array modification
  • 1.3.4 Space-time arrays
  • 1.4 Array accuracy requirements
  • 1.4.1 IQ-de-modulation errors
  • 1.4.2 Bandpass filter errors
  • 1.4.3 AD-converter limitation
  • 1.5 Antenna pattern shaping
  • 1.6 Adaptive interference suppression
  • 1.6.1 Adaptive beamforming principles
  • 1.6.2 Estimation of adaptive weights
  • 1.6.3 Determination of the dimension of jammer sub-space (dimJSS)
  • 1.6.4 Other aspects of implementation
  • 1.7 Parameter estimation and super-resolution
  • 1.7.1 Maximum likelihood estimation and monopulse
  • 1.7.2 Super-resolution
  • 1.7.3 Super-resolution applied to sub-arrays
  • 1.7.4 Super-resolution combined with adaptive interference suppression
  • 1.7.5 Adaptive target number determination
  • 1.8 Extension to space-time arrays
  • 1.9 Embedding of array processing into full radar data processing
  • 1.9.1 Adaptive monopulse
  • 1.9.2 Adaptive detection
  • 1.9.3 Adaptive tracking
  • 1.10 Conclusions and final remarks
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of symbols and functions
  • List of acronyms
  • References

Inspec keywords: array signal processing; radar signal processing; parameter estimation; antenna arrays; radar antennas

Other keywords: adaptive nulling; multitasking system; radar management; antenna array; target parameter estimation; array signal processing; monopulse estimation; deterministic pattern shaping; array features; angular super-resolution methods; principal array processing; radar processing; combining detection; adaptive beamforming

Subjects: Radar equipment, systems and applications; Antenna arrays; Radar theory; Signal processing and detection

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