Multidimensional Waveform Encoding for Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing

Multidimensional Waveform Encoding for Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing

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This chapter presents a novel fully active digital beamforming technique for radar remote sensing that is based on the concept of multidimensional waveform encoding on transmit. In contrast to the aforementioned techniques, the full area of the antenna aperture is used for both the transmission and the reception of radar pulses. This enables an improved SAR imaging performance while relying on the well established transmit/receive (T/R) module technology. The mandatory expansion of the antenna beam width for wide area illumination is achieved by an innovative spatiotemporal modulation of each transmitted radar pulse. The modulation introduces angular waveform diversity in the transmitted signal and provides, thereby, in the recorded radar echoes additional information about the spatial scatterer distribution. The multidimensional waveform encoding is hence the natural complement to digital beamforming on receive, and the combination of both techniques enables a wealth of new SAR imaging modes that significantly increase the performance, flexibility, and adaptability of future radar systems and missions.

Inspec keywords: array signal processing; radar imaging; spaceborne radar; synthetic aperture radar; radar antennas; remote sensing by radar; multidimensional signal processing; transmitting antennas; receiving antennas; image coding

Other keywords: radar pulse; SAR imaging performance; angular waveform diversity; spaceborne synthetic aperture radar remote sensing; antenna beam width; antenna aperture; wide area illumination; transmit receive module technology; multidimensional waveform encoding; active digital beamforming technique; spatial scatterer distribution

Subjects: Instrumentation and techniques for geophysical, hydrospheric and lower atmosphere research; Image and video coding; Image processing and restoration; Single antennas; Geophysical techniques and equipment; Radar equipment, systems and applications

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