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Detection of Signals in Noise

Detection of Signals in Noise

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Noise is the unwanted energy that interferes with the ability of the receiver to detect the wanted signal. It may enter through the antenna along with the desired signal or it may be generated within the receiver itself. In underwater sonar systems, external acoustic noise is generated by waves and wind on the water surface, by biological agents (fish, prawns, etc.), and by man-made sources such as engine noise. In radar and lidar sensors the external electromagnetic noise is generated by various natural mechanisms such as the sun and lightning, among others. Man-made sources of electromagnetic noise are myriad, from car ignition systems and fluorescent lights to other broadcast signals. The deliberate transmission of noise in an attempt to mask a target echo or otherwise deceive a sensor is known as jamming.

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Receiver Noise
  • 9.1.1 Radar Noise
  • 9.1.2 Noise Probability Density Functions
  • 9.1.3 Infrared Detection and Lidar Noise
  • 9.1.3.1 Thermal Noise
  • 9.1.3.2 Shot Noise
  • 9.1.3.3 Avalanche Noise
  • 9.1.3.4 1/f Noise
  • 9.1.3.5 Total Noise Contribution
  • 9.1.4 Sonar Noise
  • 9.1.4.1 Thermal Noise
  • 9.1.4.2 Noise from the Sea
  • 9.2 Effects of Signal-to-noise Ratio
  • 9.2.1 Probability of False Alarm
  • 9.2.2 Example
  • 9.2.3 Probability of Detection
  • 9.2.4 Detector Loss Relative to an Ideal System
  • 9.3 The Matched Filter
  • 9.4 Coherent Detection
  • 9.5 Integration of Pulse Trains
  • 9.6 Detection of Fluctuating Signals
  • 9.7 Detecting Targets in Clutter
  • 9.8 Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processors
  • 9.9 Target Detection Analysis
  • 9.9.1 Worked Example: Target Detection with Air Surveillance Radar
  • 9.9.1.1 Determine Receiver Parameters
  • 9.9.1.2 Radar Range Equation
  • 9.9.1.3 Determine the Receiver Noise and SNR
  • 9.9.1.4 Solve for the Detection Range (m)
  • 9.9.2 Range Analysis Software Packages
  • 9.9.3 Detection Range in Rain
  • 9.10 Noise Jamming
  • 9.10.1 Noise Jamming Example
  • 9.11 References

Inspec keywords: jamming; acoustic noise; optical radar; echo; signal detection; sonar

Other keywords: man-made sources; antenna; external acoustic noise; engine noise; jamming; fluorescent lights; lidar sensors; external electromagnetic noise; receiver; unwanted energy; radar; signal detection; car ignition systems; underwater sonar systems; water surface; target echo; biological agents

Subjects: Optical radar; Electromagnetic compatibility and interference; Sonar and acoustic radar; Signal detection

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