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Target and Clutter Characteristics

Target and Clutter Characteristics

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The operation of all active sensors requires that some of the energy transmitted by the device be reflected off objects within the beam. The characteristics of the reflected signal can then be analyzed in various ways to extract information about the target. It should be stressed that the word 'target' does not necessarily convey the idea that the object is being hunted, though that was almost certainly the root of the word. In this book, target is defined as the object of interest to the sensor, in contrast to clutter, which is defined as any object whose echoes may interfere with the investigation of the target.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Target Cross-Section
  • 8.2.1 Cross-section and the Equivalent Sphere
  • 8.2.2 Cross-section of Real Targets
  • 8.3 Radar Cross-sections (RCS)
  • 8.4 RCS of Simple Shapes
  • 8.4.1 Flat Plate
  • 8.4.2 The Sphere
  • 8.4.3 Trihedral Reflector
  • 8.4.4 Other Simple Calibration Reflectors
  • 8.5 Radar Cross-section of Complex Targets
  • 8.5.1 Aircraft
  • 8.5.2 Ships
  • 8.5.3 Ground Vehicles
  • 8.6 Effect of Target Material
  • 8.7 RCS of Living Creatures
  • 8.7.1 Human Beings
  • 8.7.2 Birds
  • 8.7.3 Insects
  • 8.8 Fluctuations in Radar Cross-section
  • 8.8.1 Temporal Fluctuations
  • 8.8.2 Spatial Distribution of Cross-section
  • 8.9 Radar Stealth
  • 8.9.1 Minimizing Detectability
  • 8.9.2 Anti-Stealth Technology
  • 8.10 Target Cross-section in the Infrared
  • 8.11 Acoustic Target Cross-section
  • 8.11.1 Target Composition
  • 8.11.2 Target Properties
  • 8.11.3 Particulate Targets
  • 8.11.4 Underwater Targets
  • 8.11.4.1 TS of a Sphere
  • 8.11.4.2 TS of Other Shapes
  • 8.12 Clutter
  • 8.12.1 Ground Clutter
  • 8.12.2 Spatial Variations
  • 8.12.3 Temporal Variations
  • 8.12.4 Sea Clutter
  • 8.13 Calculating Surface Clutter Backscatter
  • 8.14 Calculating Volume Backscatter
  • 8.14.1 Rain
  • 8.14.2 Dust and Mist Backscatter
  • 8.15 Sonar Clutter and Reverberation
  • 8.15.1 Backscatter
  • 8.15.2 Volume Reverberation
  • 8.16 Worked Example: Orepass Radar Development
  • 8.16.1 Requirement
  • 8.16.2 Selection of a Sensor
  • 8.16.3 Range Resolution
  • 8.16.4 Target Characteristics
  • 8.16.5 Clutter Characteristics
  • 8.16.6 Target Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR)
  • 8.16.7 Antenna Size and Radar Frequency
  • 8.16.8 Radar Configuration
  • 8.16.9 Component Selection
  • 8.16.9.1 Antenna Options
  • 8.16.9.2 Radar Transmitter
  • 8.16.9.3 Receiver Options
  • 8.16.10 Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • 8.16.11 Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • 8.16.12 Required IF Gain
  • 8.16.13 Detection Probability and Pulses Integrated
  • 8.16.14 Measurement Update Rate
  • 8.16.15 Monitoring Rock Falling Down the Pass
  • 8.16.16 Prototype Build and Test
  • 8.17 References

Inspec keywords: interference; clutter; electric sensing devices

Other keywords: clutter characteristics; object reflection; signal reflection; sensor; target extraction characteristics; interference; information extraction; energy transmission

Subjects: Sensing devices and transducers; Electromagnetic compatibility and interference; Sensing and detecting devices

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