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IR Radiometers & Image Intensifiers

IR Radiometers & Image Intensifiers

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Radiometers are instruments for detecting or measuring radiant energy, and although the term can be applied to sensors operating over any band in the electromagnetic spectrum, it is most often applied to devices used to measure infrared (IR) radiation. The radiation observed by such a sensor is either emitted by the object being observed or reflected from it. In this chapter, these relationships will be quantified in terms of measurable characteristics of the object.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Thermal Emission
  • 3.2.1 Blackbody Radiation
  • 3.2.2 The Planck Function
  • 3.2.3 Properties of the Planck Function
  • 3.2.4 Confirmation of Stefan-Boltzmann and Rayleigh-Jean Laws
  • 3.3 Emissivity and Reflectivity
  • 3.3.1 Worked Example: Black Body Radiation from Human Body
  • 3.4 Detecting Thermal Radiation
  • 3.4.1 External Photoeffect
  • 3.4.2 Internal Photoeffect
  • 3.4.2.1 Photoconductive Detectors
  • 3.4.2.2 Photovoltaic Detectors
  • 3.5 Heating
  • 3.5.1 Bolometers
  • 3.5.2 Pyroelectric Sensors
  • 3.5.3 Thermopiles
  • 3.6 Performance Criteria for Detectors
  • 3.6.1 Responsivity
  • 3.6.2 Noise Equivalent Power (NEP)
  • 3.6.3 Detectivity and Specific Detectivity
  • 3.7 Noise Processes and Effects
  • 3.8 Applications
  • 3.8.1 Passive Ultraviolet Sensor (External Photoeffect)
  • 3.8.2 Radiation Thermometer (Internal Photoeffect: Thermopile)
  • 3.8.3 Passive Infrared Sensor (Internal Photoeffect: Pyroelectric)
  • 3.8.4 Crookes' Radiometer
  • 3.9 Introduction to Thermal Imaging Systems
  • 3.9.1 Scattering and Absorption
  • 3.9.2 Scanning Mechanisms and Arrays
  • 3.9.3 Micro-bolometer Arrays
  • 3.9.4 Key Optical Parameters
  • 3.10 Performance Measures for Infrared Imagers
  • 3.10.1 Detector Field of View
  • 3.10.2 Spatial Frequency
  • 3.10.3 Signal to Noise Ratio for a Point Target
  • 3.10.4 Worked Example: IRST System SNR
  • 3.10.5 Signal to Noise Ratio for a Target in Ground Clutter
  • 3.10.6 Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD)
  • 3.10.7 Example
  • 3.10.8 The Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD)
  • 3.11 Target Detection and Recognition
  • 3.11.1 Example of FLIR Detection
  • 3.12 Thermal Imaging Applications
  • 3.13 Image Intensifiers
  • 3.13.1 First Generation Tubes
  • 3.13.2 Second Generation Tubes
  • 3.13.3 Limitations of Microchannel Plates
  • 3.13.4 Third Generation Tubes
  • 3.13.5 Spectral Characteristics of the Scene
  • 3.13.6 Time Gating Microchannel Plates
  • 3.14 References

Inspec keywords: radiometry; energy measurement; image intensifiers

Other keywords: image intensifiers; electromagnetic spectrum; infrared radiometers; radiant energy measurement; infrared radiation; radiant energy detection

Subjects: Image sensors; Detection of radiation (bolometers, photoelectric cells, i.r. and submillimetre waves detection); Thermal instruments and techniques; Image detectors, convertors, and intensifiers; Power and energy measurement; Electrical instruments and techniques

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