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Tomography and 3D Imaging

Tomography and 3D Imaging

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The word tomography derives from the Greek word tomos meaning section, so the process of tomography involves the generation of narrow sections through an object each made up of individual volume elements (voxels) with a cross section Δx × Δy and thickness, s, as shown in the paper. This is at best a noninvasive or minimally invasive process that is performed using sensors outside the object of interest. In many applications, sequences of two-dimensional (2D) slices are combined to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional (3D) image. The process, when applied to X-rays, is referred to as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT). Computed tomography only became feasible with the development of computer signal processing capabilities in the 1960s, but many of the basic principles were developed many years before that. In 1917, a mathematician, J. Radon, showed that the distribution of material or the material properties of an object can be determined if the integral values along any number of lines passing through a particular layer are known (Deans and Roderick 1983).

Chapter Contents:

  • 16.1 Principle of Operation
  • 16.2 CT Imaging
  • 16.2.1 Image Reconstruction
  • 16.2.2 What is displayed in CT images
  • 16.2.3 Two Dimensional Displays
  • 16.2.4 Three Dimensional Displays
  • 16.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • 16.3.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
  • 16.3.2 Imaging Process
  • 16.3.3 Imaging Resolution
  • 16.4 MRI Images
  • 16.5 Functional MRI Investigations of Brain Function
  • 16.6 Positron Emission Tomography
  • 16.6.1 Examples of the use of PET Scans
  • 16.7 3D Ultrasound Imaging
  • 16.7.1 2D Medical Ultrasound
  • 16.7.1.1 Medical Applications
  • 16.7.1.2 Dangers of Ultrasound Use
  • 16.8 3D Extension
  • 16.8.1 Ultrasonic Computed Tomography
  • 16.9 3D Sonar Imaging
  • 16.10 Ground Penetrating Radar
  • 16.10.1 3D Imaging using GPR
  • 16.11 Worked Example: Detecting a Ruby Nodule in a Rock Matrix
  • 16.12 References

Inspec keywords: computerised tomography; integral equations; X-ray microscopy; signal processing

Other keywords: computer signal processing; X-rays; computed axial tomography; two-dimensional slices; pseudothree-dimensional image; volume elements; invasive process; integral values

Subjects: Signal processing and detection; X-ray techniques: radiography and computed tomography (biomedical imaging/measurement); Integral equations (numerical analysis)

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