Radar Transmitters

Radar Transmitters

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The fundamentals of common radar-transmitter hardware were addressed in preceding chapters. This chapter will deal in greater detail with several aspects of the pulsed radar transmitter. One topic will be the origin and composition of the emitted energy, a wide spectrum of frequencies. Another subject is the modulator, which will apply a high-voltage pulse to a third area of interest, the final power amplifier, which may be a magnetron, a klystron power amplifier tube, a traveling wave tube (twt), or an amplitron, also called a cross-field amplifier (CFA). There are still other means to transmit the radar burst. A major component in the modulator is the pulse forming network, an artificial transmission line; considerable discussion of this device will be contained in this chapter.

Chapter Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Compressed High-Resolution Pulse (CHIRP) Transmitters
  • Modulation
  • Carrier and Intelligence
  • Linear versus Nonlinear Devices
  • Modulation Creates Harmonics
  • Frequency Mixing
  • Modulation Percentage
  • Pulse Modulation
  • Combining Harmonics to Form a Pulse
  • The sin x/x Amplitude Wave
  • Calculation of the Harmonic Resultant at Pulse Center
  • Calculation of the Amplitude of a Single Harmonic
  • Harmonic Frequency at the Crossover
  • Number of Harmonics in a Radar Pulse
  • The Actual Transmitter Spectrum
  • The Spectrum Analyzer
  • Spectrum Analyzer Functional Description
  • The i-f Amplifier and Resolution Bandwidth
  • Sweep Speed versus Resolution Bandwidth
  • The Display
  • Common Uses
  • Video Bandwidth
  • Fourier Transforms
  • The Klystron Power Amplifier
  • General
  • Construction
  • The Electron Gun
  • The Input Cavity
  • The Intermediate Cavity
  • The Output Cavity
  • The Collector
  • Drive Power
  • Body, Collector, and Beam Current
  • Self-excitation
  • The Ion Pump
  • Radiation Hazard
  • Additional Cavities
  • Tuning
  • Drive Pulse Timing
  • Klystron Interlock Circuits
  • Out-of-Band Filters
  • The Magnetron
  • A Predecessor, the Reflex Klystron
  • Application by MIT Radiation Laboratories
  • Physical Construction
  • The 'Bottle' Analogy
  • Underlying Principles
  • Effect of a Magnetic Field on an Electron in Motion
  • Circular Electron Travel in a Uniform Magnetic Field
  • Magnetic Fields
  • The Cycloid
  • Formation of Synchronous Electron Clouds
  • Modes of Operation
  • Strapping
  • Performance Characteristics
  • The Amplitron, aka Crossed-Field Amplifier
  • The Modulator
  • Requirements
  • Fundamental Pulse Modulator Principle
  • The ASR-4, ASR-5, and ASR-6, as an Example
  • Interlocks
  • The High-Voltage Power Supply
  • The Charging Chokes and Diode
  • Charging the pfn to Twice the HVPS Voltage
  • The Hydrogen Thyratron
  • The Modulator Driver
  • Discharging the Pulse-Forming Network
  • Magnetron Filament Circuit
  • Test Points
  • Real and Artificial Transmission Lines
  • Real Transmission Lines
  • Common Transmission Line Characteristics
  • Signal Propagation on a Transmission Line
  • Temporal Delay
  • Frequencies above fx and Reactance
  • Artificial Transmission Lines
  • Charging the Line Capacitance
  • Termination R L
  • Reflection at the Sending End of the Line
  • Wave Computations
  • Discharging the Line
  • Forming the Modulator Pulse
  • Pulse Shape
  • The Pulse Transformer
  • Reflections
  • Calculating the First Discharge Wave
  • Inductive Charging
  • Other Modulator Types
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers

Inspec keywords: modulators; klystrons; power amplifiers; transmission lines; travelling wave tubes; magnetrons; radar transmitters

Other keywords: magnetrons; klystron power amplifier tube; CFA; cross field amplifier; traveling wave tube; artificial transmission line; pulsed radar transmitters; amplitrons; modulators

Subjects: Radar equipment, systems and applications; Amplifiers; Modulators, demodulators, discriminators and mixers; Travelling wave tubes

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