Radar Basics

Radar Basics

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In its simplest terms, a radar is a device for detecting and locating objects (targets) of interest. The basic principle of operation involves the transmission of electromagnetic waves and, some time later, the reception of the waves reflected from the target (the echo). The term 'target' generally designates an object of interest to the radar user in a given situation. In addition to the inescapable 'noise' present in all radio systems, 'clutter' is used to denote the radar reflections received from area-or volume-distributed physical entities that interfere with detection of the desired targets. Two of the most common forms of clutter are ground clutter and sea clutter, which result from the generally rough nature of the surface of the earth, whether land or sea.

Chapter Contents:

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Antenna Pattern and Beam Shapes
  • 4.3 Displays
  • 4.4 Types of Radars
  • 4.4.1 Conventional Pulse Radar
  • 4.4.2 Pulse-Compression Radar
  • 4.4.3 CW Radars
  • 4.4.4 MTI and Pulse-Doppler Radars
  • 4.5 Radar Range Equation
  • 4.6 Simple Resolution
  • 4.6.1 Range Resolution
  • 4.6.2 Angular Resolution
  • 4.6.3 Resolution Cell on the Surface
  • 4.6.4 Resolution Cell for Elevated Radars
  • 4.7 Radar Cross Section
  • 4.8 Atmospheric Propagation
  • 4.9 Multipath Propagation
  • 4.9.1 Reflection Coefficient
  • 4.9.2 Geometry of Earth Reflection
  • 4.9.3 Some Consequences of Multipath
  • 4.9.4 Pattern Propagation Factor and Effective RCS
  • 4.10 Range and Angle Tracking
  • 4.10.1 Range Tracking
  • 4.10.2 Angle Tracking
  • 4.10.3 Track-While-Scan Radar Systems
  • 4.11 Radar and ECM Frequency Bands
  • 4.12 Acknowledgments

Inspec keywords: radar clutter; electromagnetic wave transmission; target tracking; object detection; radar tracking

Other keywords: sea clutter; object locating; radar reflection; object detection; electromagnetic wave transmission; target locating; noise; ground clutter; target detection

Subjects: Signal processing and detection; Radar equipment, systems and applications; Electromagnetic wave propagation

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