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## Terahertz (THz) application in food contamination detection

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This chapter mainly focuses on various sensing technologies that have been employed to detect food and water contamination. It has been found that these conventional sensing technologies appear to be unfeasible and impractical to meet with the challenging growth of population. In this aspect, THz sensing is discussed in detail and deemed to be more effective due to its strong penetration feature, high resolution, and sensitivity to monitor the molecular changes in fruits. This chapter also introduces a novel technique of fruits contamination detection by monitoring MC and observe the transmission and path loss response of fruits. It also investigates an important parameter such as the absorption coefficient and shows some significant results and correlation of MC with transmission response and absorption coefficient. Upon close analysis, these results give meaningful information about the composites present in fruits such as carbohydrates and proteins. Toward the end, this chapter emphasizes on the advancement and development of terahertz technology applications and found that the THz sensing is a promising candidate and has a potential to change a paradigm in the plant science sector.

Chapter Contents:

• 5.1 THz components and application systems
• 5.1.1 Components of THz systems
• 5.1.2 Applications of THz systems
• 5.2 THz detecting methods and their enabling technologies
• 5.2.1 THz time-domain spectroscopy
• 5.2.2 Terahertz imaging
• 5.2.3 THz spectrum analysis with VNA
• 5.3 Challenges in food contamination detection
• 5.3.1 Distraction and absorption of water content
• 5.3.2 Low penetration depth of THz radiation
• 5.3.3 Scattering effects
• 5.4 State-of-the-art method for fruit spoilage detection
• 5.4.1 Detection of moisture content
• 5.4.2 Materials and methods
• 5.4.2.1 Experimental setup
• 5.4.2.2 Sample details
• 5.4.3 Measurement results
• 5.4.3.1 Transmission response
• 5.4.3.2 Path-loss response of fruit slices
• 5.4.3.3 Correlation of absorption coefficient with the transmission response
• 5.4.3.4 Correlation of absorption coefficient with MC
• 5.5 Conclusion
• References

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