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Antenna Measurements

Antenna Measurements

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The majority of antenna measurements lie within two basic categories: impedance measurements and pattern measurements. The first category deals with one of the most important antenna parameters-the input impedance. The second category is a very broad and equally important one, with many subcategories, such as measurements of beamwidth, minor lobe level, gain, and polarization characteristics. Measurements of efficiency and noise may also be desired in some instances. As discussed in sec. 7.8, the antenna may affect the noise level of a receiving system in special cases. Consequently, the technique of antenna noise measurements is especially important in the lower atmospheric noise region of about 1 to 10 GHz. Therefore, the basic technique of antenna noise measurement and the effect of antenna noise on overall receiving system noise are described in the present chapter.

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Antenna Patterns, General
  • 9.1.1 Radiating Near- and Far-Field Patterns
  • 9.1.2 Pattern Statistics: Near- and Far-Field Statistical Gain
  • 9.2 Far-Zone Pattern Measurements
  • 9.2.1 Low-Frequency Techniques
  • 9.2.2 High-Frequency Techniques
  • 9.2.3 Far-Field Ranges
  • 9.3 Compact Ranges
  • 9.4 Near-Field Antenna Measurements
  • 9.4.1 Planar Near-Field Measurements
  • 9.4.2 Cylindrical Near-Field Measurements
  • 9.4.3 Spherical Near-Field Measurements
  • 9.5 Polarization Measurement
  • 9.6 Scale-Model Measurements
  • 9.7 Antenna Pattern Measurement Equipment
  • 9.8 Directivity and Gain Measurements
  • 9.8.1 Absolute-Field-Strength Method
  • 9.8.2 Standard Gain Antennas
  • 9.8.3 Power-Measurement Methods
  • 9.8.4 Gain Measurement by Comparison
  • 9.9 Antenna Efficiency
  • 9.9.1 Radiation Efficiency
  • 9.9.2 Aperture Efficiency
  • 9.10 Radiation Resistance
  • 9.11 Impedance Measurements
  • 9.11.1 Standing-Wave Method
  • 9.11.2 Network Analyzers
  • 9.12 The Smith Chart
  • 9.13 Antenna Noise Measurement
  • 9.13.1 Elementary Noise Theory
  • 9.13.2 Antenna Noise Temperature
  • 9.13.3 Measurement Techniques
  • 9.13.4 Low-Noise-Temperature Comparison Sources
  • 9.13.5 Measurements Using Ambient Temperature Noise Sources
  • 9.14 System Noise Calculations
  • 9.14.1 Noise Figure
  • 9.14.2 System Noise Temperature
  • References
  • Problems and Exercises

Inspec keywords: noise measurement; antenna theory; antenna testing

Other keywords: input impedance; pattern measurement; antenna noise measurement; noise level; impedance measurement

Subjects: Single antennas; Antenna theory

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