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Antennas with Special Properties

Antennas with Special Properties

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Chapter 7 discusses properties of antennas and antenna analysis techniques not addressed in other chapters. Antennas are used in many different applications, and consequently there are numerous special properties needed to satisfy their requirements. The range of topics addressed in this chapter is wide, and includes techniques for providing wide bandwidths, multiple polarizations, low receiver noise, and extremely low side lobes. A specific application may, of course, employ more than one of these techniques. There is also a section solely on antennas for direction finding and another on antennas that accomplish beam scanning mechanically. The concept of synthetic-aperture antennas, although perhaps more of a signal processing than an antenna topic, is also discussed here, because it is a uniquely effective way of attaining very narrow antenna beamwidths through use of a relatively small antenna on a moving platform. Finally, the chapter closes with a section on seemingly unrelated subjects, namely, geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), method of moments (MoM), and fractals. These topics are, however, connected by the subject of radiation from sharp edges (curvatures small compared to a wavelength), which currently cannot be analyzed by exact theoretical methods.

Chapter Contents:

  • 7.1 Broad-Band Antennas
  • 7.1.1 Basic Broad-Band Principles
  • 7.1.2 Broad-Band Dipoles
  • 7.1.3 Biconical Antennas
  • 7.1.4 Monopoles
  • 7.1.5 Folded Dipoles
  • 7.1.6 Superturnstile Antenna
  • 7.1.7 Miscellaneous Broad-Band Dipoles and Other Radiators
  • 7.2 Frequency-Independent Antennas
  • 7.2.1 The Log-Periodic Principle
  • 7.2.2 Practical Log-Periodic Designs
  • 7.2.3 Equiangular Log-Periodic Antennas
  • 7.2.4 Self-Complementary Antennas
  • 7.2.5 Spiral Antennas
  • 7.3 Antennas for Multiple Polarizations
  • 7.3.1 Antennas for Circular Polarization
  • 7.3.2 Polarizers and Dual-Mode Transducers
  • 7.3.3 Corrugated Horn Feeds
  • 7.4 Omnidirectional Antennas
  • 7.5 Electrically Small Antennas
  • 7.6 Direction-Finding Antennas
  • 7.6.1 Low-Frequency Null Systems
  • 7.6.2 Beam-Maximum Systems
  • 7.6.3 Lobing Antennas
  • 7.7 Mechanical Scan Antennas
  • 7.7.1 Introduction
  • 7.7.2 Rapid Mechanical Scan Antennas
  • 7.8 Low-Noise Receiving Antennas
  • 7.9 Synthetic-Aperture Antennas
  • 7.10 Antennas with Extremely Low Side Lobes
  • 7.11 Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, Method of Moments, and Fractals
  • 7.11.1 Geometric Theory of Diffraction
  • 7.11.2 Method of Moments
  • 7.11.3 Fractals and Fractal Antennas
  • References
  • Problems and Exercises

Inspec keywords: method of moments; fractal antennas; signal processing; antenna radiation patterns; geometrical theory of diffraction; electromagnetic wave polarisation

Other keywords: narrow antenna beamwidth; bandwidth; side lobe; signal processing; method of moments; antenna analysis; MoM; beam scanning; synthetic-aperture antenna; polarization; radiation; direction finding; geometrical theory of diffraction; fractal; receiver noise; GTD

Subjects: Electromagnetic wave propagation; Single antennas; Other numerical methods; Signal processing and detection

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