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Reflectors and Lenses

Reflectors and Lenses

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An array antenna can be used to achieve a directional radiation pattern in which the radiated power is concentrated in a beam. This paper treats an entirely different method of achieving essentially the same result, by the use of reflectors and lenses. Antennas using these devices achieve a directional effect most readily explained in terms of optical principles described in sec.

Chapter Contents:

  • 6.1 Focusing and Collimation
  • 6.1.1 Focusing by a Parabolic Reflector
  • 6.1.2 Paraboloids and Parabolic Cylinders
  • 6.1.3 Space Attenuation for Point and Line Sources
  • 6.2 Beamwidth and Directivity
  • 6.2.1 Shape of Aperture
  • 6.2.2 Primary and Secondary Patterns
  • 6.2.3 Beamwidth
  • 6.2.4 Directivity
  • 6.3 Reflector Illumination
  • 6.3.1 Primary Pattern Requirements
  • 6.3.2 Taper and Side Lobes for Elliptical Apertures
  • 6.3.3 Optimum Illumination Taper
  • 6.3.4 Line-Source Feeds
  • 6.3.5 Feed-Positioning Requirements
  • 6.3.6 Cassegrain Feeds
  • 6.4 Radiation Patterns of Horn Antennas
  • 6.4.1 Horn Patterns, in General
  • 6.4.2 Shapes of Major Lobes
  • 6.4.3 Measured Wide-Beamwidth Horn Patterns
  • 6.4.4 Summary
  • 6.5 Pattern Calculation and Reflector Antenna Design
  • 6.5.1 General Remarks
  • 6.5.2 Aperture Distribution and Pattern of a Half Parabolic Cylinder
  • 6.5.3 Steps for Reflector Antenna Design
  • 6.6 Refl ector Construction
  • 6.6.1 Fabrication Methods
  • 6.6.2 Refl ector Surface Accuracy Requirements
  • 6.7 Corner-Reflector Antennas
  • 6.8 Lens Antennas
  • 6.8.1 Optical Lenses
  • 6.8.2 Lens Surface Configurations
  • 6.8.3 Lens Refracting Media
  • 6.8.4 Variable-Index-of-Refraction Lenses
  • 6.8.5 Focusing with Dielectric and Metal Plate Lenses
  • 6.8.6 Dielectric Lenses
  • 6.8.7 Metal Plate Lenses
  • 6.8.8 Geodesic Luneberg Lenses
  • 6.9 Beam Steering by Feed Offset
  • 6.10 Pattern Calculations for Continuous Apertures
  • 6.10.1 Historical Note on Aperture Analyses
  • 6.10.2 Continuous Line Source
  • 6.10.3 Aperture Analysis: General
  • 6.10.4 Apertures Having Separable x and y Distributions
  • 6.10.5 Equivalent Linear Apertures in Principal Planes
  • 6.10.6 Circular Apertures
  • 6.10.7 Patterns Versus and Φ: A Summary
  • 6.11 Comparison of Directive Antenna Types
  • References
  • Problems and Exercises

Inspec keywords: antenna radiation patterns; reflector antennas; lenses; directive antennas

Other keywords: optical principles; reflector antennas; directional radiation pattern; antenna array

Subjects: Other optical system components; Single antennas

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