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This chapter discusses array antennas that are designed so that the major lobe (the main beam) is pointed in one fixed direction or more. Commonly, array antennas are also designed to electronically, and thus almost instantly, change beam pointing direction. Such a beam pointing antenna is called a phased array, electronic scanning array, or electronically steered array (ESA). The general principles of arrays are discussed in the present chapter, and chapter 8, titled Electronically Steered Arrays, focuses on concepts and techniques more directly applicable to electronic beam steering.

Chapter Contents:

  • 5.1 Basic Array Theory
  • 5.1.1 The Two-Isotropic-Element Array
  • 5.1.2 Pattern Versus θ and Φ
  • 5.1.3 Parallel-Dipole Two-Element Array
  • 5.1.4 Mutual Coupling
  • 5.1.5 Input and Mutual Impedances, and Radiation Resistance
  • 5.1.6 Principle of Pattern Multiplication
  • 5.1.7 Effects of Element Directivity and Mutual Coupling
  • 5.2 Multielement Uniform Linear Arrays
  • 5.2.1 Radiation Pattern
  • 5.2.2 Broadside Linear Arrays
  • 5.2.3 Endfire Arrays
  • 5.3 Parasitically Excited Endfire Arrays
  • 5.4 Planar and Volume Arrays with Uniform Aperture Distribution
  • 5.4.1 Planar Arrays
  • 5.4.2 Pattern Versus θ and Φ
  • 5.4.3 Volume Arrays and Plane Reflectors
  • 5.5 Linear Array Pattern Calculations
  • 5.5.1 General Equations for Array Patterns
  • 5.5.2 Linear Array Patterns
  • 5.5.3 Broadside Linear Array Patterns
  • 5.5.4 Grating Lobes
  • 5.5.5 Comparisons: Broadside Array and Continuous Aperture Antenna
  • 5.5.6 Endfire Array Patterns
  • 5.6 Array Tapering for Side-Lobe Reduction
  • 5.6.1 Introduction
  • 5.6.2 Amplitude Tapering of Broadside Arrays: General
  • 5.6.3 Dolph-Chebyshev Synthesis
  • 5.6.4 Simplifi ed Calculations for Dolph-Chebyshev Patterns
  • 5.6.5 The Taylor Distribution
  • 5.6.6 Other Low-Side-Lobe Array Distributions
  • 5.7 Planar Arrays: Patterns, Directivity, and Gain
  • 5.7.1 Introduction
  • 5.7.2 Patterns Versus θ and Φ: Equal Element Spacing
  • 5.7.3 Separable Aperture Distributions
  • 5.7.4 Patterns Versus θ and Φ: Equal Amplitude, Separable Arrays
  • 5.7.5 Summary of Planar Array Patterns
  • 5.7.6 Beamwidth and Gain of Broadside Arrays
  • 5.8 Some Other Array Types
  • 5.8.1 Long-Wire Arrays
  • 5.8.2 Horn and Slot Arrays
  • 5.8.3 Patch or Microstrip Arrays
  • 5.8.4 Phased Arrays for Scanning
  • 5.9 General Remarks on Mutual Coupling
  • References
  • Problems and Exercises

Inspec keywords: antenna phased arrays; beam steering

Other keywords: electronic scanning array; beam pointing antenna; electronically steered array; main beam; major lobe; beam pointing direction; phased array; electronic beam steering; array antennas

Subjects: Antenna arrays

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