Future Directions-Telecommunications

Future Directions-Telecommunications

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Optical Fibers and RF: A natural combination — Recommend this title to your library

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This chapter deals exclusively with high-speed digital transmission using single-mode (SM) fibers. Analog use of optical fibers is relatively limited, and is not driving industry R & D efforts. Multimode (MM) fiber is now used mainly in local area networks (LANs) at short wavelengths. Ongoing R & D is constantly improving SM fibers and optical components. Specifically, significant progress is being realized in the areas of reducing the hydrogen attenuation peak at 1380 nm, optical filtering (DWDM), tunable lasers, wavelength locking, optical amplifiers, chromatic dispersion control, polarization mode dispersion control, optical signal switching, error correction, and wavelength converters. These improvements are discussed mainly relative to the performance and reach of single links. Optical networking uses some of these to avoid electronic multiplexing/de-multiplexing. With optical networking, wavelengths or 'lambdas' are dropped/added/routed through an all-optical network. Connections using only optical paths and/or networking are called transparent. A network that uses E/O and O/E conversions is called an opaque network.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Basic Network Structures
  • 8.3 The Telephone (Voice-Centric) Network
  • 8.3.1 Introduction
  • 8.3.2 Telephone Hierarchy
  • 8.3.3 SONET/SDH Multiplexing
  • 8.4 The Data (Data-Centric) Network
  • 8.4.1 Introduction
  • 8.4.2 Data Networking
  • 8.4.3 Protocols
  • 8.5 Point-to-Point/Networking Technology
  • 8.5.1 Attenuation Optimized SM Fiber
  • 8.5.2 Dispersion Optimized SM Fiber
  • 8.5.3 Chromatic Dispersion/Slope Compensation
  • 8.5.4 Broadband Optical Amplifiers
  • 8.5.5 Coarse/Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM/DWDM)
  • 8.5.6 Tunable Lasers
  • 8.5.7 Integrated Optics/Electronics
  • 8.5.8 Wavelength Converters
  • 8.6 Optical Networking
  • 8.7 Coherent Optical Systems

Inspec keywords: optical fibre polarisation; optical fibre amplifiers; wavelength division multiplexing; optical filters; demultiplexing; optical fibre LAN; optical wavelength conversion; optical fibre dispersion; optical switches

Other keywords: SM fiber; wavelength 1380 nm; LAN; wavelength locking; O-E conversion; wavelength converter; local area network; chromatic dispersion control; optical filtering; electronic multiplexing-demultiplexing; single-mode fiber; E-O conversion; error correction; polarization mode dispersion control; multimode fiber; DWDM; tunable laser; all-optical network; optical signal switching; optical fiber; hydrogen attenuation peak; optical amplifier; MM fiber; high-speed digital transmission

Subjects: Fibre lasers and amplifiers; Optical switches; Optical coatings and filters; Fibre optics; Optical fibre networks; Multiplexing and switching in optical communication; Local area networks; Optical harmonic generation, frequency conversion, parametric oscillation and amplification

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