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Respiratory Aids

Respiratory Aids

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The trachea and bronchi contain sensory nerves of two types. In the smooth muscle are receptors that signal the degree of stretch and therefore of inflation of the airways and lungs. These signals are used to control the pattern of breathing. If the Vagus nerves, which carry sensory information from the bronchi, are cut, breathing becomes slow, deep, and mechanically inefficient. The second type is the fine nerve fibers in the epithelium, with finger-like projections reaching almost to the airway lumen. These respond to inhaled pollutants and irritants and set up a range of reflex responses. The most striking is the cough, but there is also reflex mucus secretion and smooth muscle contraction.

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Construction
  • 9.3 The Mechanics of Respiration
  • 9.3.1 Physical Properties
  • 9.3.2 Lung Elasticity
  • 9.3.3 Frictional Forces
  • 9.3.4 Inertia
  • 9.4 Energy Required for Breathing
  • 9.5 Measuring Lung Characteristics
  • 9.5.1 Spirometry
  • 9.5.2 Pneumotachography
  • 9.6 Mechanical Ventilation
  • 9.6.1 Early History
  • 9.6.2 Polio
  • 9.6.3 External Negative-Pressure Ventilators
  • 9.6.4 The Drinker Respirator
  • 9.6.5 The Both Respirator
  • 9.6.6 Homemade Iron Lungs
  • 9.6.7 The Emerson Respirator
  • 9.6.8 The Alligator Cabinet Respirator
  • 9.6.9 Portable Respirators
  • 9.6.10 Other Uses for Negative-Pressure Ventilation
  • 9.7 The Physics of External Negative-Pressure Ventilation
  • 9.8 Positive-Pressure Ventilators
  • 9.8.1 Historical Background
  • 9.8.2 The Need for Positive-Pressure Ventilation
  • 9.8.3 Ventilation Modes
  • 9.8.4 Controlled Mandatory Ventilation
  • 9.8.5 Volume-Controlled Mandatory Ventilation
  • 9.8.6 Pressure-Controlled Mandatory Ventilation
  • 9.8.7 Spontaneous Ventilation
  • 9.8.8 Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
  • 9.8.9 Portable Ventilators
  • 9.8.10 Sleep Apnea
  • 9.9 References

Inspec keywords: cellular biophysics; muscle; pneumodynamics; neurophysiology

Other keywords: nerve fibers; airway lumen; trachea; lungs; finger-like projections; reflex responses; respiratory aids; smooth muscle contraction; breathing; muscle; sensory nerves; bronchi; reflex mucus secretion

Subjects: Cellular biophysics; Biophysics of neurophysiological processes; Mechanical properties of tissues and organs; Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics

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