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Heart Replacement

Heart Replacement

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The principal function of the heart is to pump blood continuously around the cardiovascular system. The heart receives signals from both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers, which can alter the rate of the beat, but they do not initiate contraction. Instead, action potentials generated by autorhythmic cells create waves of depolarization that spread to contractile cells via gap junctions. A dense network of blood vessels surrounds the heart and supplies the respiring cardiac tissues with essential oxygen and nutrients and also removes metabolic waste.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 The Heart as a Pump
  • 8.2.1 Heart Valves
  • 8.2.2 The Pump Cycle
  • 8.2.3 The Cardiac Output
  • 8.2.4 Pressure Regulation
  • 8.2.5 Heart Disease
  • 8.2.6 Biomechatronic Perspective
  • 8.3 Heart-Lung Machines
  • 8.3.1 History
  • 8.3.2 Modern Heart-Lung Machines
  • 8.4 Artificial Hearts
  • 8.4.1 History
  • 8.4.2 Implanting an Artificial Heart
  • 8.5 Ventricular Assist Devices
  • 8.5.1 History
  • 8.5.2 Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Devices
  • 8.5.3 Intracorporeal Left Ventricular Assist Devices
  • 8.5.4 Generation 1 LVADs
  • 8.5.5 Pulsatile Pump Technology
  • 8.5.6 Generation 2 VADs
  • 8.5.7 Generation 3 VADs
  • 8.5.8 Generation 4 VADs
  • 8.5.9 Toward an Ideal Replacement Heart
  • 8.5.10 Other Pump Types
  • 8.6 Engineering in Heart Assist Devices
  • 8.6.1 Fluid Dynamics in Pulsatile LVADs
  • 8.6.2 Fluid Dynamics in Centrifugal and Axial LVADs
  • 8.6.3 Estimation and Control of Blood Flow
  • 8.6.4 Transcutaneous Energy Transfer
  • 8.7 Pump Types
  • 8.7.1 Centrifugal and Axial Pump Characteristics
  • 8.7.2 Rotary Pump Characteristics
  • 8.7.3 Reciprocating Pump Characteristics
  • 8.7.4 Bearings
  • 8.8 References

Inspec keywords: biological tissues; diseases; cardiovascular system; blood vessels; artificial organs; biomedical equipment; cellular biophysics; prosthetics; lung; blood pressure measurement; neurophysiology

Other keywords: cardiovascular system; parasympathetic nerve fibers; cardiac tissues; depolarization waves; action potentials; autorhythmic cells; contractile cells; metabolic waste products; heart replacement; blood vessels

Subjects: Biophysics of neurophysiological processes; Cellular biophysics; Prosthetics and other practical applications; Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics; Prosthetics and orthotics

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