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Maritime ports and cybersecurity

Maritime ports and cybersecurity

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While cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities are being addressed in the port industry, this has not yet been achieved to the required degree. To be effective, cybersecurity must evolve rapidly and constantly alongside technology implemented in ports. This chapter introduces the modern port and explores its importance. It then presents cybersecurity and draws a connection between ports and cybersecurity, highlighting ports as a cyber-physical environment. To illustrate the cyberthreat landscape, five known attacks in ports are explored. This chapter then examines control mechanisms in place for cyber risk management for ports and reviews current cybersecurity guidelines and standards. These concepts are encapsulated in the summary, which mentions digital trends and the future of maritime ports and cybersecurity.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 The modern port
  • 2.1.1 Port system
  • 2.1.2 Port ownership models
  • 2.1.3 Port structure
  • 2.1.3.1 Automation
  • 2.1.3.2 Cargo
  • 2.1.3.3 Ships
  • 2.1.3.4 Transport network
  • 2.2 The importance of ports
  • 2.2.1 Ports as critical infrastructure
  • 2.2.2 Ports as critical information infrastructure
  • 2.2.3 Impact of port disruption
  • 2.2.3.1 Congestion
  • 2.2.3.2 Economy
  • 2.2.3.3 Environment
  • 2.2.3.4 Geopolitics
  • 2.2.3.5 Safety
  • 2.3 Cybersecurity
  • 2.3.1 Cybersecurity attributes
  • 2.3.2 Vulnerabilities and threats
  • 2.3.3 Cyberattacks
  • 2.3.3.1 Advanced persistent threat
  • 2.3.3.2 Backdoor
  • 2.3.3.3 Malware
  • 2.3.3.4 Phishing
  • 2.3.3.5 Ransomware
  • 2.3.3.6 Social engineering
  • 2.3.3.7 Virus
  • 2.3.3.8 Worms
  • 2.4 Ports and cybersecurity
  • 2.4.1 Port as a cyber–physical environment
  • 2.4.2 Cybersecurity attributes of ports
  • 2.5 Attack scenarios
  • 2.5.1 APT40
  • 2.5.2 The Port of San Diego
  • 2.5.3 The Maersk NotPetya Attack
  • 2.5.4 The Danish Maritime Authority
  • 2.5.5 The Port of Antwerp
  • 2.6 Cyber risk management for ports
  • 2.6.1 Risk assessment
  • 2.6.2 Risk management
  • 2.6.2.1 Coordinated risk management
  • 2.6.3 Risk strategy for ports
  • 2.6.3.1 Cyber insurance
  • 2.6.3.2 Investment decisions
  • 2.6.3.3 Reporting
  • 2.7 Cybersecurity guidelines and standards
  • 2.7.1 Guidelines
  • 2.7.1.1 IMO Shipping Regulations
  • 2.7.2 National strategies
  • 2.7.2.1 EU Directives and GDPR
  • 2.7.3 Frameworks
  • 2.7.3.1 NIST Cybersecurity Framework
  • 2.7.4 Standards of practice
  • 2.7.4.1 The ISPS Code, ISO/IEC 27001, and Common Criteria
  • 2.8 Summary
  • References

Inspec keywords: goods distribution; sea ports; computer crime; risk management; cyber-physical systems; marine systems

Other keywords: maritime ports; port industry; cybersecurity threats; cybersecurity standards; cybersecurity guidelines; cyber attacks; cyber risk management; cyber-physical environment; digital trends

Subjects: Goods distribution; Retailing and distribution computing; Information technology applications; Data security

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