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Multi-criteria optimization of electric vehicle fleet charging and discharging schedule for secondary frequency control

Multi-criteria optimization of electric vehicle fleet charging and discharging schedule for secondary frequency control

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Commercial fleet of electric vehicles (EV) is serving clients for different purposes, but each of those services is requiring some time to be fulfilled. When the vehicle is charging or discharging using the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, the waiting time to service increases, and the vehicle owner is suffering losses due to the reduced service quality. In this chapter, we are exploring the scheduling optimization problem of an EV fleet controlled by the aggregator. The optimization of vehicle daily scheduling is needed in order to increase the revenues from offering ancillary services and reduce costs of service quality loss. New, practical multi-criteria decision-making methodologies for the daily scheduling of EV fleet are proposed. Criteria that have to be fulfilled simultaneously are the minimization of the service waiting time (SWT), maximization of the revenues coming from the frequency regulation services and the minimization of the costs incurred by the vehicle charging, including the costs of battery degradation. The stochastic nature of vehicles driving patterns (time the car owner has to calculate for the service provision) is considered using the queuing theory. The proposed methodology has been successfully implemented on two cases of EV commercial fleet daily scheduling.

Chapter Contents:

  • List of abbreviations
  • Nomenclature
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.1 Motivation
  • 4.1.2 Literature review
  • 4.1.3 Contribution
  • 4.1.4 Chapter structure
  • 4.2 Optimization problem
  • 4.2.1 Frequency regulation
  • 4.2.2 Business model
  • 4.2.3 ICT architecture
  • 4.2.4 Optimization objectives
  • 4.2.4.1 Commercial service quality
  • 4.2.4.2 Revenues from the regulation services
  • 4.2.4.3 Environmental objectives
  • 4.3 Multi-objective optimization
  • 4.3.1 Fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making
  • 4.3.2 MAUT
  • 4.4 Case studies
  • 4.4.1 Belman–Zadeh approach
  • 4.4.2 MAUT methodology
  • 4.5 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Inspec keywords: battery powered vehicles; decision making; scheduling; power grids; queueing theory; electric vehicles; optimisation; secondary cells; frequency control

Other keywords: minimization; vehicle charging; offering ancillary services; multicriteria optimization; service provision; EV commercial fleet daily scheduling; vehicle daily scheduling; electric vehicles; vehicle owner; reduced service quality; practical multicriteria decision-making methodologies; secondary frequency control; service quality loss; electric vehicle fleet; vehicle-to-grid concept; service waiting time; car owner; frequency regulation services; service increases; scheduling optimization problem; EV fleet

Subjects: Optimisation techniques; Power system control; Optimisation techniques; General transportation (energy utilisation); Frequency control; Control of electric power systems; Secondary cells; Transportation; Secondary cells; Power system management, operation and economics

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