GNSS-based tolling: standards and implementations

GNSS-based tolling: standards and implementations

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In summary, the future for GNSS tolling looks brighter than ever. For the technology vendors in this domain, it has been extremely demanding to survive in this challenging market - with only a few GNSS-based tolling schemes being installed over the past decade, and many failed projects in between. But many new opportunities lie ahead, and we can look forward to navigate these new paths, with the guidance of increasingly more accurate and cost-effective satellite-based equipment.

Chapter Contents:

  • 16.1 Overview of major GNSS tolling projects in Europe and worldwide
  • 16.1.1 Introduction
  • 16.1.2 The Swiss distance-based 'LSVA' system
  • 16.1.3 German 'Toll Collect' system
  • Fat client vs. thin client approach
  • 16.1.4 The planned lorry road user charge in the United Kingdom
  • 16.1.5 The planned tolling scheme of the Netherlands for all vehicles on all roads
  • 16.1.6 Slovakia's innovative 'Myto' system
  • 16.1.7 The French é cotaxe system
  • 16.1.8 Hungary's 'HU-GO' system
  • 16.1.9 Russia's 'PLATON' system
  • 16.1.10 The Belgium 'Viapass' system
  • 16.1.11 Common themes in all GNSS-based tolling systems
  • 16.1.12 Summary of failed projects
  • United Kingdom: LRUC
  • Netherlands: ABVM
  • France: Écotaxe
  • 16.2 Technical challenges of GNSS in tolling
  • 16.2.1 Introduction
  • 16.2.2 Challenges of GNSS technology
  • Accuracy vs. availability
  • GNSS reception
  • Multipath issues
  • Time to first fix
  • Jamming and spoofing
  • The remedy: inertial navigation and other sources of location information
  • Satellite-based augmentation systems
  • 16.2.3 Issues with the communication link
  • Network coverage
  • Bandwidth
  • End of journey
  • 16.2.4 Issues with power supply
  • 16.2.5 Issues with maps
  • Updates
  • Coordinate reference systems
  • 16.2.6 Key performance indicators (KPIs) and service-level agreements (SLAs)
  • Measurement
  • KPIs on PNT information
  • 16.3 Commercial and political obstacles in implementing tolling systems
  • 16.3.1 Long lead times
  • 16.3.2 Privacy concerns
  • 16.3.3 Increase in transportation costs
  • 16.3.4 Fear of failure and over-specification
  • 16.3.5 Lack of a sound business case
  • 16.4 Trade-offs in the definition of tolling systems
  • 16.4.1 Number of vehicles vs. size of the road network
  • 16.4.2 Flexibility vs. complexity
  • 16.4.3 Cost of implementation vs. cost of operation
  • 16.4.4 Thin vs. fat client
  • 16.5 Trends in GNSS-based tolling systems
  • 16.5.1 Integration into cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS)
  • 16.5.2 Multi-constellation GNSS
  • 16.5.3 Fusion of GNSS signals with inertial sensors and vehicle data (CAN bus)
  • 16.5.4 Separation of Toll Service Providers and Toll Chargers
  • 16.5.5 Interoperability and EETS
  • 16.5.6 Use of smartphones in electronic tolling
  • 16.6 Using GNSS-based tolling systems for other purposes
  • 16.6.1 Missing trader fraud
  • 16.6.2 A Multipurpose GNSS-based OBU – with data privacy
  • 16.7 Lessons learned from existing GNSS-based tolling systems
  • References

Inspec keywords: satellite navigation

Other keywords: satellite-based equipment; GNSS-based tolling scheme

Subjects: Satellite communication systems; Radionavigation and direction finding

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