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The impact of Satellite AIS to the environmental challenges of modern shipping

The impact of Satellite AIS to the environmental challenges of modern shipping

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Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a mandatory navigation safety communications system under the provisions of the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Conventions. The convention requires ships of 300 gross tons and upwards engaged on international voyages, cargo ships of 500 gross tons and upwards not engaged on international voyages and all passenger ships irrespective of size to be fitted with AIS.1 The ability to decode AIS messages from these vessels using a constellation of satellites has been continuously demonstrated by exactEarth since 2010 exploiting big data management expertise to deliver clear, global near real-time maritime vessel tracking information to government authorities worldwide. The superior detection technology of these satellites supports the rapid buildup of verifiable maritime domain awareness (MDA), which is now used to support a number of maritime applications including environmental protection, detecting and curbing illegal fishing and monitoring marine pollution. In an ever-changing environment where there is a vital need for the persistent monitoring of human activity to protect the world's waters and marine life from ship disasters and illicit activity, Satellite AIS (S-AIS) has become a very powerful tool in the delivery of MDA to a variety of maritime and geospatial users around the world. This chapter aims to explore the current applications of S-AIS data in environmental protection as well as potential future uses of S-AIS in this arena.

Chapter Contents:

  • 13.1 Background into AIS
  • 13.2 AIS and how it works
  • 13.3 The importance of first pass detection
  • 13.3.1 On-board processing (OBP)
  • 13.3.2 Spectrum de-collision processing (SDP)
  • 13.4 Comparison of varying methods of Satellite AIS reception techniques: OBP and SDP
  • 13.5 The challenges to environmental protection
  • 13.6 Satellite AIS for environmental protection
  • 13.7 Illegal ballast water exchange
  • 13.8 Oil spill identification
  • 13.9 Tracking illegal fishing
  • 13.10 Monitoring ship emissions
  • 13.11 Satellite AIS for environmental planning
  • 13.12 Conclusion

Inspec keywords: real-time systems; ships; satellite communication; disasters; marine communication

Other keywords: environmental protection; maritime domain awareness; modern shipping; satellite AIS; ship disasters; environmental challenges; safety of life at sea; human activity monitoring; illicit activity; AIS message decoding; automatic identification system; mandatory navigation safety communications system; real-time maritime vessel tracking information; SOLAS; government authorities

Subjects: Acoustic and other telecommunication systems and equipment; Transportation; Satellite communication systems

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