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A comprehensive review of communication technologies for street lighting applications in smart cities

A comprehensive review of communication technologies for street lighting applications in smart cities

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Over the last decade, increasing availability of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and broadband communications technologies has enabled a number of smart applications in many cities. Among various smart city applications, a smart street lighting application is considered as one of the most cost-effective choices for a smart city today, if relying on existing street lights that are already deployed and networked across a city. Piggy-bagging on a readily available networked street lighting infrastructure, several city-wide services can be offered rapidly and cost effectively. Examples of additional devices that can be deployed along with networked street lights are such as environmental sensors, traffic sensors, IP cameras, digital signage, and more. To enable connections among different sensing and control devices, communication technologies and networks are of crucial components. There are a wide variety of communication technologies that can be used, namely, Sigfox, long range (LoRa), Weightless, Symphony Link, random phase multiple access (RPMA), narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), long-term evolution category 0/1/M (LTE category 0/1/M), power line communications (PLC), ZigBee, IPv6 low-power wireless personal area network (6LoWPAN), wireless local area network (WLAN), wireless mesh, worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), and Cellular (2G/3G/ 4G/5G). The chapter aims at providing a comprehensive discussion of various communication technologies that can serve smart street lighting and other add-on applications in a smart city. These technologies are evaluated on the basis of communication network requirements of different applications pertaining to their data rate, latency, reliability, and security.

Chapter Contents:

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Smart street lighting applications in smart cities
  • 6.2.1 Basic street lighting control
  • 6.2.2 Advanced street lighting control
  • 6.2.3 Performance/energy reporting
  • 6.2.4 Environmental/traffic/public safety monitoring
  • 6.2.5 Signage, alerts, and other services
  • 6.2.6 Emergency response
  • 6.3 Architecture: smart street lights system with key components
  • 6.3.1 Control center
  • 6.3.2 Street lights
  • 6.3.3 Sensors
  • 6.3.4 Other optional services and smart city applications
  • 6.3.5 Communication network
  • 6.4 Various communication technologies and protocols supporting smart street lighting applications
  • 6.4.1 Communication technologies and protocols
  • 6.4.1.1 SigFox
  • 6.4.1.2 LoRa
  • 6.4.1.3 Weightless
  • 6.4.1.4 Symphony Link
  • 6.4.1.5 Random phase multiple access
  • 6.4.1.6 Narrowband-IoT
  • 6.4.1.7 LTE-M
  • 6.4.1.8 Power line communication
  • 6.4.1.9 ZigBee
  • 6.4.1.10 6LoWPAN
  • 6.4.1.11 Wireless local area network
  • 6.4.1.12 Wireless mesh
  • 6.4.1.13 WiMAX
  • 6.4.1.14 Cellular
  • 6.4.2 Communication protocols
  • 6.4.2.1 Digital addressable lighting interface
  • 6.4.2.2 X10
  • 6.4.2.3 Insteon
  • 6.4.2.4 Consumer electronic bus
  • 6.5 Network requirements and suitable communication technologies of smart street lighting applications
  • 6.6 Summary
  • References

Inspec keywords: WiMax; street lighting; personal area networks; wireless LAN; carrier transmission on power lines; cellular radio; Long Term Evolution; computer network security; Zigbee; wireless sensor networks; telecommunication network reliability; Internet of Things; smart cities; 5G mobile communication; IP networks

Other keywords: ZigBee; 5G cellular communication; LTE category 0/1/M; piggy-bagging; long range communication; smart street lighting application; smart city today; random phase multiple access; IPv6 low-power wireless personal area network; 3G cellular communication; narrowband IoT; wireless local area network; communication network requirements; smart city applications; 4G cellular communication; city-wide services; street lighting applications; symphony link; digital signage; environmental sensors; broadband communications technologies; WLAN; wireless mesh; 6LoWPAN; power line communications; control devices; networked street lighting infrastructure; WiMAX; 2G cellular communication; traffic sensors; Sigfox communication; IP cameras; worldwide interoperability for microwave access; Internet of Things devices; IoT devices; long-term evolution category

Subjects: Lighting (energy utilisation); Computer networks and techniques; Reliability; Protocols; Computer communications; Power line systems; Lighting; Wireless sensor networks; Data security

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