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Narrowband IoT technologies for smart city applications

Narrowband IoT technologies for smart city applications

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Internet of Things (IoT) has been rapidly gaining ground in recent years, due to its potential to revolutionize the way we live and work. The inclusion of the IoT technologies in the daily operations and services in a city spans a wide variety of applications, including transportation, smart parking systems, smart lighting, health care, smart buildings, etc. To deliver specific smart services in a city, heterogeneous IoT objects should be connected in a network, which then can process the collected data and take explicit actions, based on the required service. To this end, there exist a large number of IoT communication protocols, with distinct coverage range, capacity, operational cost, data rate, etc. In this chapter, we analyze the narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) protocol, as one of the key technologies expected to play a leading role in a smart city scenario. Compared to other protocols, the NB-IoT possess unique features that are treated and justified throughout the chapter. The physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layer specifications are detailed, and several smart city applications through a terrestrial NB-IoT infrastructure are described. In addition, a satellite-based NB-IoT system is considered, together with some relevant applications, because of its ability to overcome the limitations of a terrestrial network. Last but not least, the challenges imposed by the satellite channel into the PHY and MAC layer procedures are characterized and supported by numerical simulations. To conclude the chapter, possible solutions and research directions are discussed.

Chapter Contents:

  • List of acronyms
  • 2.1 Introduction to smart city and IoT
  • 2.2 Wireless technologies/protocols for IoT
  • 2.2.1 Long-range IoT
  • 2.2.2 Why NB-IoT for smart cities?
  • 2.2.2.1 Easy network access, scalability, and management
  • 2.2.2.2 High capacity, low device unit cost, and extended battery life
  • 2.2.2.3 Good coverage
  • 2.2.2.4 Secure connectivity
  • 2.3 Narrowband IoT
  • 2.3.1 Physical layer specifications
  • 2.3.1.1 Physical resources and frame structure
  • 2.3.1.2 Physical signals and channels
  • 2.3.2 MAC layer specifications
  • 2.3.2.1 Random access procedure
  • 2.3.2.2 Radio resource scheduling
  • 2.3.2.3 Hybrid automatic repetition quest (HARQ) operation
  • 2.4 NB-IoT applications in smart cities
  • 2.4.1 Smart lighting
  • 2.4.2 Smart parking
  • 2.4.3 Smart transportation
  • 2.4.4 Smart hospital
  • 2.4.5 Smart home/building
  • 2.4.6 Smart wearables
  • 2.4.7 Smart grid
  • 2.4.8 Industrial applications
  • 2.5 NB-IoT via satellite for smart cities
  • 2.5.1 Relevant applications
  • 2.5.1.1 Disaster management
  • 2.5.1.2 Offloading of extremely crowded areas
  • 2.5.1.3 Transportation
  • 2.5.2 Architecture options
  • 2.5.3 The main challenges of an NB-IoT via satellite network
  • 2.5.3.1 PHY layer
  • 2.5.3.2 MAC layer
  • 2.5.4 Possible solutions
  • 2.5.4.1 Positioning estimation strategy for time/frequency compensation
  • 2.5.4.2 Group-based user scheduling strategy for time/frequency-misalignment reduction
  • 2.5.4.3 New signaling configurations with increased timers
  • 2.5.4.4 HARQ deactivation
  • 2.6 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: access protocols; Internet of Things; smart cities

Other keywords: daily operations; medium access control layer specifications; specific smart services; terrestrial network; smart city scenario; heterogeneous IoT objects; IoT communication protocols; narrowband IoT technologies; narrowband IoT protocol; terrestrial NB-IoT infrastructure; satellite-based NB-IoT system; smart city applications

Subjects: Protocols; Computer communications; Protocols; Computer networks and techniques

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