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A software-defined blockchain-based architecture for scalable and tamper-resistant IoT-enabled smart cities

A software-defined blockchain-based architecture for scalable and tamper-resistant IoT-enabled smart cities

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The increasing reliance on smart city operations has motivated the need for trusted Internet of Things (IoT) transactions due to the transformation of IoT devices from smart sensing to being active participants that share their data with fog/edge computing services. Existing security models such as centralized cloud-hosted security infrastructures cannot address IoT's security and privacy concerns because of the lack of resources and flexibility, which makes IoT devices susceptible to elevation of privileges, and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS). An attractive and more realistic alternative to address these challenges is the blockchain, which uses a decentralized infrastructure for fighting DDoS attacks and eliminate the risk of a single point of failure. Blockchain serves as the backbone for diverse IoT applications, such as transactive energy auctions, self-driving cars, and trusted health-care systems. Additionally, software-defined networking (SDN) allows the development of customized security policies and services in a dynamic, software-based fashion. Complementing SDN, network function virtualization (NFV) enables scaling IoT capabilities by allowing on-demand service orchestration and management. By combining blockchain and SDN/NFV, we can optimize the flow management in response to attacks by enabling sophisticated analysis of IoT transactions and improving security and privacy based on global network awareness given by centralized SDN controllers. To that end, in this chapter, we introduce an SDN architecture for enforcing security of IoT transaction in the blockchain. We also introduce a novel proof-of-authority (PoA) consensus algorithm to report suspected IoT smart devices and report them under smart contract. We then introduce a distributed intrusion detection system as a manifestation of virtualized network functions (VNFs) in the fog computing environment, i.e., a firewall-as-a-service in SDN network, which takes care of malicious flows and enables DDoS detection and mitigation on-demand.

Chapter Contents:

  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Background and literature review
  • 12.2.1 Overview of blockchain technology
  • 12.2.2 Convergence of blockchain and IoT
  • 12.2.3 Blockchain security over SDN
  • 12.3 Architectural design
  • 12.3.1 System design
  • 12.3.2 Flow management
  • 12.3.3 Smart contract design
  • 12.3.4 Consensus algorithm
  • 12.4 Use cases
  • 12.4.1 Blockchain-SDN-enabled Internet of vehicles
  • 12.4.2 When blockchain and SDN meet Internet of Energy (IoE)
  • 12.4.3 Improving security between IoT gateways
  • 12.5 Open challenges and directions for future work
  • 12.5.1 Scalability issues
  • 12.5.2 Power consumption
  • 12.5.3 Storage
  • 12.5.4 Privacy leakage
  • 12.6 Potential future research opportunities
  • 12.6.1 Off-chaining models
  • 12.6.2 Data analytics
  • 12.6.3 Artificial intelligence
  • 12.6.4 Smart contracts
  • 12.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Inspec keywords: computer network security; authorisation; cloud computing; virtualisation; Internet; data privacy; Internet of Things; software defined networking

Other keywords: centralized SDN controllers; software-defined networking; IoT transaction; distributed intrusion detection system; decentralized infrastructure; smart city operations; centralized cloud-hosted security infrastructures; fog computing environment; SDN network; smart sensing; security models; SDN architecture; network function virtualization; IoT smart devices; software-based fashion; denial-of-service; health-care systems; mitigation on-demand; IoT devices; on-demand service orchestration; diverse IoT applications; transactive energy auctions; virtualized network functions; smart contract; customized security policies; tamper-resistant IoT-enabled smart cities; software-defined blockchain-based architecture; privacy concerns; global network awareness; DDoS attacks; increasing reliance; firewall-as-a-service

Subjects: Data security; Computer communications; Computer networks and techniques

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