EMF exposure in heterogeneous networks environments

EMF exposure in heterogeneous networks environments

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Future networks will be composed of a network of networks, consisting of many multiple-access technologies, multiple bands and widely varying coverage areas, all self-organised and optimised, with seamless roaming among different systems. The Electromagnetic Field (EMF) exposure in this type of heterogeneous networks involves several aspects that need to be carefully addressed. In this chapter, an overview of the current methods to assess EMF levels in the 0.4-6 GHz band is presented. Different methods used to assess exposure in uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) scenarios are detailed, the impact of body shadowing on wearable exposimeter EMF measurements is assessed and the global exposure in heterogeneous networks composed of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and Wi-Fi systems, in different scenarios, varying usage, mobility and number of users, is evaluated.

Chapter Contents:

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 EMF exposure evaluation and assessment
  • 4.2.1 Dosimetric/epidemiologic use of metrics
  • 4.2.2 Methods for EMF exposure assessment
  • 4.3 On-body measurements
  • 4.3.1 Estimation of EMF from personal and fixed-point exposimeters
  • 4.3.2 Simulation results
  • 4.3.3 EMF exposure in BANs
  • 4.4 EMF exposure in heterogeneous networks
  • 4.4.1 Exposure assessment in heterogeneous networks accounting for UL and DL
  • 4.4.2 Exposure model
  • 4.4.3 Simulation scenario
  • 4.4.4 Simulation results
  • 4.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: Long Term Evolution; mobility management (mobile radio); cellular radio; 3G mobile communication; biological effects of fields; multi-access systems; microwave measurement; biological effects of microwaves

Other keywords: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System; multiple-access technologies; heterogeneous networks environments; EMF exposure; wearable exposimeter EMF measurements; Global System; frequency 0.4 GHz to 6.0 GHz; Electromagnetic Field exposure; Wi-Fi systems; seamless roaming

Subjects: Bio-optics (effects of microwaves, light, laser and other electromagnetic waves); Mobile radio systems; Health Physics; Microwave measurement techniques

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