Reducing EMF via energy-efficient inter-frequency small cell discovery

Reducing EMF via energy-efficient inter-frequency small cell discovery

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Ultra-densification and increased bandwidth are promising 5G technologies envisaged for meeting the ever-increasing mobile traffic demands. Deploying complementary small cells operating in the higher frequency bands on an existing macro layer operating on the traditional lower frequency band is recognized as a very attractive solution for providing high capacity and seamless ubiquitous coverage. However, existing small cell discovery mechanisms are tailored for the macro layer and using them will lead to an increase in the user equipment (UE) energy consumption and consequently an increase in the generated electromagnetic field (EMF). This chapter summarizes various small cell discovery mechanisms that are designed for an energy-efficient and EMF-efficient discovery of the small cells. It further presents a framework for evaluating the optimal small cell discovery periodicity which also leads to the reduction in the generated EMF in a 5G heterogeneous network.

Chapter Contents:

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Energy-efficient ISCD mechanisms
  • 11.2.1 Relaxed inter-frequency measurement gap
  • 11.2.2 UE speed-based inter-frequency measurement gap triggering
  • 11.2.3 Use of RSS or RSRP radio fingerprint for ISCD
  • 11.3 Inter-frequency small cell discovery
  • 11.3.1 ISCD periodicity and small cell offloading opportunity
  • 11.3.2 Approximation of the percentage of time a typical UE missed small cell offloading opportunity
  • 11.4 Energy efficiency evaluation
  • 11.4.1 Probability of UE association to a tier
  • Idealistic probability of UE association to a tier
  • Realistic UE association
  • UE power consumption model
  • Average UE transmit power in a tier
  • Average ergodic rate of a typical UE in a tier
  • 11.4.2 Ideal average energy efficiency
  • 11.4.3 Realistic average energy efficiency
  • 11.5 Optimal ISCD periodicity
  • 11.5.1 Optimal ISCD based on average energy consumption
  • 11.5.2 Optimal ISCD based on UE's average energy efficiency
  • 11.6 Conclusion
  • References

Inspec keywords: bandwidth allocation; cellular radio; telecommunication traffic; electromagnetic fields; electric potential; telecommunication power management; 5G mobile communication

Other keywords: 5G heterogeneous network; user equipment energy consumption; seamless ubiquitous coverage; energy-efficient interfrequency small cell discovery; cell discovery mechanisms; generated EMF; optimal small cell discovery periodicity; mobile traffic demands; 5G technologies; EMF-efficient discovery

Subjects: Mobile radio systems; Electromagnetic compatibility and interference

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