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EMF exposure definition, metrics, effects and regulations

EMF exposure definition, metrics, effects and regulations

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This introductory chapter provides an overview of Electromagnetic Field (EMF) exposure from mobile systems. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation in the Radio-Frequency (RF) spectrum range is described, with established EMF exposure metrics as well as the recent EMF Exposure Index (EI), and public perceptions of EMF exposure are discussed. Finally, international EMF exposure guidelines and limits are presented.

Chapter Contents:

  • 1.1 Scope
  • 1.2 Factors contributing to EM exposure in mobile communications
  • 1.2.1 Communication network topology
  • 1.2.1.1 Cell deployment
  • 1.2.1.2 Distributed antenna topology
  • 1.2.1.3 Heterogeneous networks
  • 1.2.2 Location of the user relative to the BS
  • 1.2.3 Duration of exposure
  • 1.3 EM radiation and RF communication spectrum range
  • 1.4 EM radiation metrics
  • 1.4.1 Near field and SAR
  • 1.4.1.1 Whole-body averaged SAR
  • 1.4.1.2 Organ-specific averaged SAR
  • 1.4.1.3 Peak-spatial averaged SAR
  • 1.4.2 Far field and power density
  • 1.5 EM exposure index
  • 1.6 Perception and physiological impact of EMF exposure in mobile communication
  • 1.6.1 Risk assessment and public perception of exposure
  • 1.6.2 Physiological impact
  • 1.6.2.1 Exposure and brain tumour
  • 1.6.2.2 Other exposure effects on different age groups
  • 1.6.2.3 Exposure effects of mmWave transmissions
  • 1.7 EM exposure guidelines and limits
  • 1.7.1 EM exposure limits
  • 1.7.2 Precautionary principle
  • 1.7.3 EM radiation exclusion zones
  • 1.8 Conclusion
  • References

Inspec keywords: electromagnetic fields; biological effects of fields; health hazards

Other keywords: Radio-Frequency spectrum range; Electromagnetic Field exposure; recent EMF Exposure Index; established EMF exposure metrics; introductory chapter; EMF exposure definition; mobile systems; Electromagnetic radiation

Subjects: Mobile radio systems; Biological effects of radiations; Biophysics of neurophysiological processes; Health and safety aspects

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