Ultra wideband body-centric networks for localisation and motion capture applications

Ultra wideband body-centric networks for localisation and motion capture applications

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Localisation and motion tracking using body-worn antennas are emerging as an important research area based on ultra wideband (UWB) technology. Motion tracking itself is motivated by a variety of applications such as training of athletes, patient monitoring in health care domain, localisation of people in home or office environment, and the human body is an integral part of such applications. Hence, it is important to study the effect of human body on UWB localisation and the accuracy achieved while localizing the antennas present on the body. The choice of sensors, such as compact, efficient and low-cost UWB antennas, makes human localisation and activity monitoring a promising new application made possible by advances in UWB technology. In this chapter, UWB three-dimensional (3D) human body localisation is studied using body-worn antennas placed on different locations on the human body through numerical and experimental investigations. Detailed analysis is performed based on the measurement data in terms of propagation phenomenon for each antenna location and how the presence of human body affects ranging and localisation accuracy. The objective of the work is to achieve high-accuracy localisation of the human body using time of arrival positioning techniques and also evaluate the results with the optical motion capture system which is used as a standard reference.

Chapter Contents:

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Indoor propagation channel and multipath environment
  • 11.3 IR-UWB technology
  • 11.3.1 Advantages and disadvantages of IR-UWB technology
  • 11.3.2 Body-centric UWB localisation applications
  • 11.4 UWB body-centric localisation scheme
  • 11.4.1 NLOS identification
  • Received signal amplitude
  • RMS delay spread
  • Kurtosis
  • 11.4.2 Non-line of sight mitigation
  • 11.4.3 TOA data fusion method
  • 11.5 BS configurations for UWB localisation
  • 11.5.1 Cuboid-shape configuration
  • 11.5.2 Y-shape configuration
  • 11.5.3 Geometric dilution of precision
  • 11.6 Numerical investigation of UWB localisation accuracy
  • 11.6.1 Numerical analysis of body-worn antennas
  • 11.6.2 Analysis of body-worn antenna localisation
  • 11.6.3 Effect of the presence of obstacles near BSs
  • 11.7 Body-worn antennas localisation in realistic indoor environment
  • 11.7.1 Measurement set-up
  • 11.7.2 NLOS identification and mitigation
  • Amplitude of received signal
  • RMS delay spread
  • Kurtosis parameter analysis
  • NLOS mitigation using threshold-based techniques
  • 11.7.3 Accuracy and error range analysis
  • Antenna localisation accuracy
  • Geometrical dilution of precision analysis
  • 11.8 Localisation of body-worn antennas using UWB and optical motion capture system
  • 11.8.1 Measurement set-up for upper body localisation
  • 11.8.2 Localisation results and analysis
  • 11.9 Summary
  • References

Inspec keywords: ultra wideband antennas; ultra wideband communication; wearable antennas; body area networks; radiowave propagation; radionavigation

Other keywords: activity monitoring; motion capture application; health care domain; motion tracking; people localisation; UWB 3D human body localisation; time of arrival positioning technique; propagation phenomenon; UWB three-dimensional human body localisation; body-worn antenna; optical motion capture system; antenna location; ultra wideband body-centric network; localisation application

Subjects: Radio links and equipment; Radionavigation and direction finding; Single antennas

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