Numeric protection

Numeric protection

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This chapter describes, in some detail, the hardware, operating principles, software design procedures and testing of contemporary numeric relays and fault recorders.

Chapter Contents:

  • Introduction
  • 4.1 Numeric relay hardware
  • 4.1.1 Typical relay hardware structure
  • 4.1.2 Relay interfaces
  • 4.1.3 Relay operating environment
  • 4.2 Numeric relay algorithms
  • 4.2.1 Overcurrent relays
  • 4.2.2 Distance relays
  • 4.2.3 Directional comparison relays
  • 4.2.4 Differential relays
  • 4.3 Fault location
  • 4.3.1 Introduction
  • 4.3.2 Fault location using apparent reactance
  • 4.3.3 Compensation for remote end infeed
  • 4.3.4 Accurate compensation for shunt capacitance
  • 4.3.5 Hardware for fault locators - fault recorders
  • 4.3.6 Phasor extraction
  • 4.4 Software considerations
  • 4.5 Numeric relay testing
  • 4.5.1 Introduction
  • 4.5.2 Relay test hardware
  • 4.5.3 Digital power system fault simulation
  • 4.6 References
  • 4.7 Further reading
  • 4.8 Appendix: Typical numeric relay specifications
  • 4.8.1 Electrical environment
  • 4.8.2 Insulation
  • 4.8.3 Electromagnetic compatibility

Inspec keywords: relay protection; fault location

Other keywords: fault recorders; contemporary numeric relays; numeric protection; operating principles; software design procedures; hardware

Subjects: Power system protection

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