Renewable energy systems—photovoltaic systems

Renewable energy systems—photovoltaic systems

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Lightning Interaction with Power Systems - Volume 2: Applications — Recommend this title to your library

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In this chapter, a general description of lightning overvoltage effects phenomena of renewable systems (with special focus on photovoltaic (PV) systems) is disclosed. A brief introduction to solar radiation and PV systems is presented in order to set up the general parameters and terminology of PV systems and their components. Time-dependent parameters, such as position of the sun, Earth's rotation, and solar's and tilted surface's (such as PV systems) angles, do form the basic references used in PV systems and in this chapter. Different literature sources were consulted for the representation of the available models for the estimation of the global solar radiation on the tilted surface or PV systems.

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Solar energy: solar radiation, parameters, hourly and daily parameters
  • 9.1.1 Daily parameters
  • 9.1.2 Second, minute or hourly based parameters
  • 9.1.3 Extraterrestrial and terrestrial solar radiation
  • 9.2 Photovoltaics: PV cells, PV modules, partial shading and its effects
  • 9.3 PV systems: off-grid and grid-connected, considerations of the grid connection
  • 9.4 Earthing (grounding) of PV-systems
  • 9.4.1 The importance of earthing characteristics
  • The earthing characteristics of an earthing electrode
  • The earthing characteristics of a mesh earthing electrode
  • 9.4.2 The earthing characteristics of photovoltaic systems
  • 9.4.3 The earthing characteristics for optimal selection of SPDs
  • 9.5 Internal and overvoltage lightning protection
  • 9.5.1 Protection at the PV generator's side or DC side
  • 9.5.2 Protection at the AC side
  • 9.6 External lightning protection
  • 9.6.1 Internal lightning protection
  • 9.7 Mounting (racking) systems as air-termination systems
  • 9.8 External dedicated mounting systems (non-isolated, isolated)
  • 9.9 Concluding remarks
  • References

Inspec keywords: power generation protection; photovoltaic power systems; overvoltage protection; lightning protection; sunlight

Other keywords: renewable energy systems; PV systems; lightning overvoltage effects phenomena; time-dependent parameters; photovoltaic systems; global solar radiation

Subjects: Power system protection; Solar power stations and photovoltaic power systems

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