Lightning protection of Smart Grids

Lightning protection of Smart Grids

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In this chapter, a broad view of 'lightning protection' includes the use of lightning in all proactive protection strategies. A summary of measurement technologies used on electric power systems and achievements of research campaigns will show the origins of some traditional surge waveforms, such as the 1.2/50 standard lightning impulse voltage wave, from nearly 100 years ago. Some of these methods and many results still apply to present-day Smart Grid component protection. The authors also cover the sequential evolution of the following: traditional travelling wave systems (TWS) for finding faults along individual cables and lines, from 1940s; the modern LLS based on travelling waves in two dimensions, from 1980s; and the recent wide-area power system monitoring and measurement systems, using time-synchronized measurements of voltage and current phasors (synchrophasors) from 2005, classed as a 'Smart Grid' initiative.

Chapter Contents:

  • 7.1 Introduction: history of power system technologies
  • 7.1.1 Electric power systems and mathematics
  • 7.1.2 Electric power systems and communication
  • Power system frequency
  • Dedicated pilot wire systems for relay protection
  • Plain old telephone service
  • Power line carrier
  • Microwave networks
  • Fibre optic networks
  • Standards for lightning protection of Smart Grid communication systems
  • 7.1.3 Electric power systems and lightning measurements
  • 7.2 Smart Grid functions and technologies
  • 7.2.1 Wide-area monitoring and visualization
  • 7.2.2 Flow control
  • 7.2.3 Enhanced fault identification
  • 7.2.4 Adaptive protection and automated feeder switching
  • 7.2.5 Automated islanding and reconnection
  • 7.2.6 Diagnosis and notification of equipment condition
  • 7.2.7 Dynamic thermal rating capabilities
  • 7.3 Lightning and digital recording technology
  • 7.3.1 Digital recording systems for lightning overvoltages
  • 7.3.2 Voltage sensors for lightning overvoltages
  • 7.3.3 Combined current and voltage sensor for lightning measurements
  • 7.3.4 Non-contact sensors for impulse voltage and current
  • 7.3.5 Commercial current sensors for equipment monitoring
  • 7.4 Lightning protection of Smart Grid sensors
  • 7.4.1 Reliability requirements for Smart Grid sensors and systems
  • 7.4.2 Candidate wiring configurations for Smart Grid sensors
  • 7.4.3 Industry standards for lightning protection of Smart Grid sensors
  • 7.4.4 Industry standards for lightning protection of Smart Grid communication systems
  • 7.4.5 Case study: EMC and residential Smart Grid interoperability
  • 7.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: electric current measurement; phasor measurement; power system faults; power system measurement; voltage measurement; smart power grids; lightning protection; fault location

Other keywords: time-synchronized measurements; voltage phasor measurement; proactive protection strategies; wide-area power system measurement; smart grid initiative; wide-area power system monitoring; smart grid component protection; current phasor measurement; measurement technologies; 1.2/50 standard lightning impulse voltage wave; synchrophasor measurement; lightning protection; traditional surge waveforms; traditional travelling wave systems

Subjects: Voltage measurement; Power system measurement and metering; Power system protection; Current measurement

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