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Lightning interaction with power substations

Lightning interaction with power substations

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This chapter presents the influence of lightning on the insulation performance of substation equipment. First, in Section 2.1, the lightning surge analysis including reliability evaluation is positioned in the insulation coordination procedure. As an introductory section of the following ones, the lightning surge analyses are classified in terms of treatment of statistics and calculation tools. Next, in Section 2.2, as a representative example of a simplified statistical approach, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method is introduced, which calculates simply a lightning surge overvoltage in shielding failure and in back fl ashovers based on the limit distance, the distance between a surge arrester and protected equipment, the number of connected overhead lines and damping by corona effects. Then, Section 2.3 refers to a detailed lightning surge analysis, taking the ultra -high -voltage (UHV) case carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc., Japan, as a decisive approach. Lightning surge analyses for back fl ashover are dealt with especially from the viewpoint of insulation design of electric power facilities considering the special conditions peculiar to the UHV class. Finally, Section 2.4 evaluates the failure rates of gas insulated switchgear and transformers with changing parameter values of the lightning current crest value and the front time. Together with the probability distribution of the lightning current, failure rates caused by back fl ashover are comprehensively evaluated.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Fundamental concepts
  • 2.1.1 Definition and procedure of insulation coordination
  • 2.1.2 Lightning overvoltage in insulation coordination
  • 2.1.2.1 Lightning overvoltages in substations
  • 2.1.2.2 Protection by surge arrester towards lightning overvoltages
  • 2.1.2.3 Limitation by design of overhead lines
  • 2.1.3 Lightning surge analysis
  • 2.2 Simplified statistical approach of lightning surge analysis
  • 2.2.1 Basics
  • 2.2.2 Calculation of the limit distance
  • 2.2.2.1 Protection by arresters
  • 2.2.2.2 Self-protection of substation
  • 2.2.3 Estimation of the lightning overvoltage amplitude
  • 2.2.3.1 General
  • 2.2.3.2 Shielding failure in transmission lines
  • 2.2.3.3 Back flashovers
  • 2.2.4 Simplified method
  • 2.2.5 Assumed maximum value of the representative lightning overvoltage
  • 2.3 Detailed deterministic approach of lightning surge analysis
  • 2.3.1 Basic analysis conditions
  • 2.3.2 Analysis conditions and models
  • 2.3.2.1 Location of lightning strokes
  • 2.3.2.2 Grounding resistance of transmission towers
  • 2.3.2.3 Surge arrester in substations
  • 2.3.2.4 Corona effects in transmission lines
  • 2.4 Failure rate evaluation considering front time of lightning current
  • 2.4.1 Crest value and wavefront time of lightning stroke current
  • 2.4.2 Wavefront time of lightning stroke current and amplitude of lightning surge
  • 2.4.2.1 Overvoltages at GIS
  • 2.4.2.2 Overvoltage at transformer
  • 2.4.3 Lightning failure rates in substations in consideration of lightning current waveforms
  • 2.4.3.1 Distribution of overvoltages generated at GIS
  • 2.4.3.2 Distribution of overvoltages generated at transformer
  • 2.4.3.3 Evaluation of lightning failure rate of GIS
  • 2.4.3.4 Evaluation of lightning failure rate of transformer
  • References

Inspec keywords: gas insulated transformers; gas insulated switchgear; power system reliability; power overhead lines; corona; statistical distributions; lightning protection; arresters; damping; flashover; substation protection; substation insulation

Other keywords: transformers; international electrotechnical commission method; lightning interaction; lightning surge overvoltage; back flashovers; decisive approach; overhead lines; ultra high voltage case; power substations; substation equipment insulation performance; lightning surge analysis; statistical approach; IEC method; shielding failure; corona effects; gas insulated switchgear; probability distribution; insulation coordination procedure

Subjects: Overhead power lines; Substations; Transformers and reactors; Switchgear; Other topics in statistics; Reliability; Power line supports, insulators and connectors; Protection apparatus

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