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Application of the FDTD method to lightning studies

Application of the FDTD method to lightning studies

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Lightning Interaction with Power Systems - Volume 2: Applications — Recommend this title to your library

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Electromagnetic computation methods (ECMs) have been widely used in analyzing lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMPs) and lightning-caused surges in various systems. One of the advantages of ECMs, in comparison with circuit simulation methods, is that they allow a self-consistent, full-wave solution for both the transient current distribution in a three-dimensional conductor system and resultant electromagnetic fields, although they are computationally expensive. Among ECMs, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been the most frequently used in lightning electromagnetic field and surge simulations. In this chapter, applications of the FDTD method to lightning electromagnetic field and surge simulations are reviewed. The applications include (i) surges on grounding electrodes, (ii) lightning surges on overhead power transmission lines (TLs) and towers, (iii) lightning surges on overhead power distribution and telecommunication lines, (iv) lightning electromagnetic environment and surges in power substations, (v) lightning surges on underground power and telecommunication cables, (vi) lightning surges in wind-turbine-generator towers, (vii) lightning surges in photovoltaic (PV) arrays, (viii) lightning surges and electromagnetic environment in buildings, (ix) lightning electromagnetic fields at close and far distances, and others.

Chapter Contents:

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 FDTD method
  • 11.2.1 Fundamentals
  • 11.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages
  • 11.3 Representations of lightning source
  • 11.3.1 Lightning return-stroke channel
  • 11.3.2 Excitation methods
  • 11.4 Applications
  • 11.4.1 Surges on grounding electrodes
  • 11.4.2 Lightning surges on overhead power transmission lines and towers
  • 11.4.3 Lightning surges on overhead power distribution and telecommunication lines
  • 11.4.4 Lightning electromagnetic environment and surges in power substation
  • 11.4.5 Lightning surges on underground distribution and telecommunication lines
  • 11.4.6 Lightning surges in wind-turbine-generator towers
  • 11.4.7 Lightning surges in photovoltaic arrays
  • 11.4.8 Lightning surges and electromagnetic environment in buildings
  • 11.4.9 Lightning electromagnetic fields at close and far distances
  • 11.4.10 Other applications
  • 11.5 Summary
  • References

Inspec keywords: finite difference time-domain analysis; electromagnetic fields; wind turbines; lightning; surge protection; power transmission lines; poles and towers; current distribution; power overhead lines; electromagnetic pulse; lightning protection

Other keywords: lightning electromagnetic environment; lightning studies; circuit simulation methods; three-dimensional conductor system; lightning electromagnetic field; ECMs; surge simulations; resultant electromagnetic fields; electromagnetic computation methods; FDTD method; finite-difference time-domain method; lightning surges; lightning-caused surges

Subjects: Other numerical methods; Power system protection; Substations; Electromagnetic compatibility and interference; Overhead power lines; Wind power plants

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