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## Measurement of lightning currents and voltages

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This chapter begins with a historical introduction, followed by two other sections, one relating to lightning current measurements and another to lightning voltage measurements. In the historical introduction, a brief historical background of lightning current and voltage measurements in substations and transmission lines is shown, such as the derivation of the widely used lightning voltage waveform, 1.2/50 gs. Section 10.2 is dedicated to lightning current measurements, including measurements on transmission lines and high-instrumented towers. Section 10.3 presents the lightning voltage measurements. A detailed history of the lightning voltage measurement is presented. The principles for six types of lightning voltage measurement sensor are also presented. Finally, a discussion of the potential measurement techniques is provided.

Chapter Contents:

• 10.1 Historical introduction
• 10.2 Lightning current measurements
• 10.2.1 Lightning current measurement methodology on transmission lines
• 10.2.1.1 Klydonograph
• 10.2.1.2 Electret sensor
• 10.2.1.4 Magnetic tape
• 10.2.2 Lightning current measurement methodology on high towers
• 10.3 Measurement method of lightning voltage
• 10.3.1 Voltage divider
• 10.3.2 Capacitive sensor connected to bushings
• 10.3.3 Noncontact capacitive voltage divider
• 10.3.4 Integrated optical waveguide voltage (electric field) sensor
• 10.3.5 Crystal-based batteryless and contactless optical transient overvoltage sensor
• 10.3.6 Optical voltage (electric field) sensor based on converse piezoelectric effect
• 10.4 Application of various lightning overvoltage sensors in power systems
• References

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