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Surge-protective devices

Surge-protective devices

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Surge-protective devices (SPDs) used in transmission and distribution overhead lines (OHLs), while the second is related to low-voltage (LV) distribution systems. Metal oxide arresters (MOAs), with and without external gaps, and multi chamber arresters (MCAs) are used for protecting high-voltage (HV) and medium voltage (MV) lines against lightning overvoltages. An SPD is a device that is intended to limit transient overvoltages and divert currents. A voltage limiting type SPD has high impedance when no surge is present, but this impedance is continuously reduced with increased surge current and voltage. The main causes for surges are direct or indirect lightning strikes and man-made switching overvoltages. For an efficient protection of LV power systems against voltage or current surges, so-called LV surge protective devices are frequently used. The second part of this chapter gives an overview about surge protection for LV power systems.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Common definitions and general function principle of SPDs used in HV, MV and LV systems
  • 8.1.1 Common definitions
  • 8.1.2 General function principle
  • 8.2 SPDs used in transmission and distribution (HV and MV) overhead lines
  • 8.2.1 Metal oxide arresters
  • 8.2.1.1 Construction and mode of operation
  • 8.2.1.2 MOAs for OHLs
  • 8.2.2 Multi-chamber arresters
  • 8.2.2.1 Multi-chamber system
  • 8.2.2.2 'Zero quenching' arresters
  • 8.2.2.3 MCS: 'impulse quenching'
  • 8.2.3 Multi-chamber insulator arresters
  • 8.2.4 Arc-quenching tests
  • 8.2.4.1 Test procedure
  • 8.2.4.2 Principal test results
  • 8.2.4.3 MCA zero quenching (see Section 8.2.2)
  • 8.2.4.4 MCA and MCIA impulse quenching (see Sections 8.2.2 and 8.2.3)
  • 8.3 SPDs for LV power systems
  • 8.3.1 Terms and definitions
  • 8.3.2 Standards
  • 8.3.3 Introduction to surge protection for LV power systems
  • 8.3.4 Multi-stage surge protection schemes
  • 8.3.5 Lightning protection zones
  • 8.3.6 Types of SPDs
  • 8.3.7 Surge-protective components
  • 8.3.7.1 Spark gaps
  • 8.3.7.2 Gas-discharge tubes
  • 8.3.7.3 Metal-oxide varistors
  • 8.3.7.4 Suppressor diodes
  • 8.3.8 Series and parallel connection of surge-protective components
  • 8.3.8.1 Series connection of a varistor and a GDT
  • 8.3.8.2 Parallel connection of varistors
  • 8.3.8.3 Parallel connection of a spark gap and a varistor
  • 8.3.9 Connection types of SPDs
  • 8.3.10 Inspection and field-testing of SPDs
  • 8.3.11 Test generators and test facilities for type testing
  • 8.3.12 Approvals from certified bodies
  • References

Inspec keywords: overvoltage protection; power transmission protection; power distribution lines; power distribution protection; lightning protection; arresters; power overhead lines

Other keywords: LV power system protection; MV lines; distribution overhead lines; LV distribution system; lightning strikes; transmission line; metal oxide arresters; lightning overvoltages; MOA; high-voltage line protection; HV lines; surge current; medium voltage line protection; transient overvoltages; multichamber arresters; switching overvoltages; surge voltage; MCA; low-voltage distribution systems; SPD; surge-protective devices

Subjects: Power system protection; Overhead power lines; Distribution networks

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