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Lightning response of grounding electrodes

Lightning response of grounding electrodes

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Lightning Interaction with Power Systems - Volume 1: Fundamentals and Modelling — Recommend this title to your library

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A grounding electrode consists of any buried metallic body responsible for dispersing current to the soil. The specific application has significant influence on the electrodes' arrangement and dimension. The arrangement can vary from a simple rod, connected to the transformer of a distribution line, to horizontal electrodes buried about 0.5 m deep in the soil composing the counterpoise wires of transmission-line tower footings, or the typical grounding grids of power system substations. The flow of lightning -related currents to the ground and ensuring safety conditions, in terms of distribution of the electric potentials over the ground in the region where electrodes disperse lightning currents into the soil.

Chapter Contents:

  • 7.1 Basic concepts
  • 7.1.1 Characterizing grounding systems
  • 7.1.2 Simplified representation of grounding system by equivalent circuits
  • 7.2 The frequency response of grounding systems: a qualitative approach
  • 7.2.1 Introduction
  • 7.2.2 The harmonic impedance
  • 7.2.3 The low-frequency resistance
  • 7.2.4 Propagation effects
  • 7.2.5 The frequency dependence of soil resistivity and permittivity
  • 7.3 The impulse response of grounding electrodes
  • 7.3.1 Fundamental aspects of the impulse response of electrodes and impulse grounding impedance
  • 7.3.2 Attenuation of impulsive currents propagating along electrodes and effective length
  • 7.3.3 The impulse coefficient
  • 7.3.4 Soil ionization effect
  • 7.4 Response of grounding electrodes subjected to lightning currents
  • 7.4.1 Introduction
  • 7.4.2 Characteristics of return stroke currents
  • 7.4.3 Lightning response of grounding electrodes
  • 7.4.4 Effective length of electrodes for lightning currents
  • 7.4.5 Remarks on the frequency dependence and soil ionization effects
  • 7.5 Representation of grounding systems in lightning protection studies
  • 7.5.1 Introduction
  • 7.5.2 Using Zp as a concise representation of grounding electrodes subject to lightning currents
  • 7.5.3 When using Zp to represent the grounding system: applications
  • 7.5.4 How to determine the impulse impedance
  • References

Inspec keywords: lightning protection; power grids; power distribution lines; earth electrodes; soil; power transformer protection; poles and towers; substation protection

Other keywords: electric potential; grounding electrode; metallic body; distribution line; counterpoise wires; electrode dimension; lightning response; power system substations; electrode arrangement; power transformer; transmission-line tower footings; safety condition; lightning current; grounding grid

Subjects: Substations; Transformers and reactors; Power line supports, insulators and connectors; Protection apparatus; Distribution networks

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