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Lightning return stroke models for electromagnetic field calculations

Lightning return stroke models for electromagnetic field calculations

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Return stroke models are used in the calculation of lightning-induced over-voltages in power lines because the electric and magnetic field as a function of distance and height along the line is difficult, if not impossible, to obtain experimentally. Thus the return stroke models should represent faithfully the electric and magnetic fields generated by lightning first and subsequent return strokes, the events that induce largest over-voltages in power systems. Following an introduction and nomenclature, the reader is introduced in Sections 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 to the various concepts used by engineers (i.e. current propagation, current generation and current dissipation) to construct engineering return stroke models. In Section 3.5, the way in which any given return stroke model could be represented as a current generation or current dissipation type is described. After showing that current propagation concept is a special case of current dissipation concept in Section 3.6, the way in which the current generation and current dissipation concepts could be combined to obtain return stroke models that are in agreement with current pulse propagation along transmission lines in the presence of corona is presented in Section 3.7. In Section 3.8, a review of the basic features of electromagnetic fields of return strokes that are being used in testing the engineering return stroke models are presented. This section is followed by a description of the evaluation of electromagnetic fields, including the horizontal electric field, from return stroke over finitely conducting ground. The chapter ends with concluding remarks.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Basic concept of current propagation models
  • 3.3 Basic concepts of current generation models
  • 3.3.1 Input parameters of the CG models and the expression for the current at any height
  • 3.3.2 Evaluate τ(z) given Ib(t), ρ(z) and (z)
  • 3.3.3 Evaluate ρ(z) given Ib(t), τ(z) and (z)
  • 3.3.4 Evaluate (z), given Ib(t), ρ(z) and τ(z)
  • 3.4 Basic concepts of current dissipation models
  • 3.4.1 Input parameters of the CD models
  • 3.4.2 The connection between the channel base current (or injected current) and the corona current
  • 3.5 Generalization of any model to current generation or current dissipation type
  • 3.6 Current propagation models as a special case of current dissipation models
  • 3.7 Physical basis of CD and CG models and a return stroke model based on their combination
  • 3.8 Electromagnetic fields from lightning return strokes
  • 3.9 Calculation of lightning return stroke electromagnetic fields over ground
  • 3.10 Final comments and conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: lightning; transmission lines; power cables

Other keywords: power lines; current pulse propagation; electromagnetic field calculations; magnetic field; electric field; engineering return stroke models; lightning-induced over-voltages; transmission lines; current dissipation concept; current dissipation concepts; power systems; current propagation concept

Subjects: Atmospheric electricity

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