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## Hydrogen and other synthetic fuels

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Synthetic fuels are considered to be substitutes for natural gas or oil and are made from biomass, waste, coal or water. Production of these fuels demands energy, which can be obtained from base -load power plants during off-peak hours. Therefore, synthetic fuels are a type of energy storage since it is possible to use them instead of oil or gas for peak energy generation. The fuels themselves are only a type of medium (e.g. hydrogen is simply a method to store and transmit energy); as with any other storage concept, a power transformation system and central store are also required. Storage media have to be produced during off-peak hours in a chemical reactor or electrolyser - this has to be considered as a part of a power transformation system used during the charge regime. During the discharge regime, the storage media have to be converted into electrical energy, using any kind of thermal plant with an appropriate combustion chamber. As mentioned in Chapter 7, CAES is among the possible consumers of synthetic fuels. The storage media have to be stored in a special containing device - a central store. The use of synthetic fuels does impose some problems of safety and container material, but it is not very different from the infrastructure of storage and distribution systems involving natural gas and oil fuels.

Chapter Contents:

• 8.1 General considerations
• 8.2 Synthetic storage media
• 8.3 Hydrogen production
• 8.4 Storage containment for hydrogen
• 8.5 The hydride concept

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