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Thermal energy storage

Thermal energy storage

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Thermal energy storage (TES) is efficient due to the high specific melting heat of water. One metric ton of water, just one cubic metre, can store 334 MJ (317 k BTU, 93 kWh or 26.4 ton -h). No matter what the technology of ice production is (whether ice was produced by modern anhydrous ammonia chillers or hauled in by horse-drawn carts - ice was originally transported from mountains to cities for use as a coolant), a sufficiently small storage facility can hold enough ice to cool a large building for a day or a week. Originally, the defmition of a 'ton' of cooling capacity was the heat to melt 1 ton of ice every 24 h. This defmition has since been replaced by less archaic units: 1 ton HVAC capacity equals to 12 000 BTU/h.

Chapter Contents:

  • 4.1 General considerations
  • 4.2 Storage media
  • 4.3 Containment
  • 4.3.1 Steel vessels
  • 4.3.2 Pre-stressed concrete pressure vessels
  • 4.3.3 Pre-stressed cast-iron vessels
  • 4.3.4 Underground cavities
  • 4.3.5 Aquifer storage of HTW
  • 4.3.6 Summary of containment design
  • 4.4 Power extraction
  • 4.4.1 Variable pressure accumulator
  • 4.4.2 Expansion accumulator
  • 4.4.3 Displacement accumulator
  • 4.5 TES in a power plant
  • 4.6 Economic evaluation

Inspec keywords: thermal energy storage; HVAC

Other keywords: ice production; HVAC; anhydrous ammonia chillers; cooling capacity; thermal energy storage

Subjects: Storage in thermal energy; Space heating; Heating (energy utilisation); Air conditioning; Refrigeration and cooling (energy utilisation)

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