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Electrical machine construction, operation and failure modes

Electrical machine construction, operation and failure modes

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This chapter could be subtitled 'the way rotating electrical machines fail in service'. These machines convert electrical to mechanical energy, or vice versa, and achieve this by magnetically coupling electrical circuits across an air-gap that permits rotational freedom of one of these circuits. Mechanical energy is transmitted into, or out of, the machine via a drive train that is mechanically connected to one of the electric circuits. The purpose of this chapter is to explain their constructional principles and the main causes of failure. The chapter is illustrated with a number of photographs to demonstrate to the reader the salient features of electrical machines.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Materials, strength and temperature
  • 3.3 Electrical machine construction
  • 3.3.1 General
  • 3.3.2 Stator core and frame
  • 3.3.3 Stator windings
  • 3.3.4 Rotors and windings
  • 3.3.5 Enclosures
  • 3.3.6 Connections and heat exchangers
  • 3.3.7 Summary
  • 3.4 Machine specification and failure modes
  • 3.5 Insulation ageing mechanisms
  • 3.5.1 General
  • 3.5.2 Thermal ageing
  • 3.5.3 Electrical ageing
  • General
  • Partial discharges
  • Surface tracking and moisture absorption
  • Transient voltages
  • 3.5.4 Mechanical ageing
  • 3.5.5 Environmental ageing
  • 3.5.6 Synergism between ageing stresses
  • 3.6 Insulation failure modes
  • 3.6.1 General
  • 3.6.2 Stator winding insulation
  • General
  • Delamination and voids
  • Slot discharge
  • Stator end windings
  • End-winding stress grading
  • Repetitive transients
  • 3.6.3 Stator winding faults
  • Winding faults (All machines)
  • Winding conductor faults (Generators)
  • Winding inter-turn faults (All machines)
  • End winding faults (All machines)
  • Winding coolant system faults (Large machines)
  • 3.6.4 Rotor winding faults
  • General
  • Winding faults (Induction motors)
  • Winding faults (Turbo-generators)
  • Winding faults (DC machines)
  • 3.7 Other failure modes
  • 3.7.1 Stator core faults (Turbo-and hydro-generators)
  • 3.7.2 Connection faults (HV motors and generators)
  • 3.7.3 Water coolant faults (All machines)
  • 3.7.4 Bearing faults (All machines)
  • 3.7.5 Shaft voltages (Large machines)
  • 3.8 Conclusions

Inspec keywords: air gaps; electric drives; machine testing; electric machines; failure analysis

Other keywords: failure modes; electrical circuits; mechanical energy; electrical energy; air gap; electrical machine construction; drive train

Subjects: Drives; Reliability; a.c. machines; d.c. machines

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