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Microgrid communications - protocols and standards

Microgrid communications - protocols and standards

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The recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) and telecommunication infrastructure have significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of communication protocols in microgrid environment. Nowadays, the equipment in a smart microgrid not only exchange information with one another much faster but also control, monitor and diagnose faults much faster and more reliably. Despite the benefits of new technologies, they are tailored to satisfy specific requirements, and therefore, they can be only used for certain applications. The microgrid communication model consists of a three-layer architecture, where the energy management system (EMS) sits in the top layer and controls the overall operations of the island of microgrids. The middle layer includes the local controllers (LCs) that regulate operations within the local grid. The bottom layer includes IoT devices, such as smart meters, fault recorders and protective relays, which continuously capture and transmit the stream of sensed data. Such hierarchical architecture introduces specific computation and latency requirements for each layer of microgrid communication. To meet these requirements, each layer must use different communication equipment and protocols. This chapter provides an insight into communication requirements, system architecture, standards, protocols and tools used in microgrid communications. The chapter concludes with a case study, where wireless technology is utilised for reliable and optimal operations in a microgrid.

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Communication objectives and requirements
  • 9.3 Communication layer
  • 9.3.1 Home area network
  • 9.3.2 Building automation network
  • 9.3.3 Neighbourhood area network
  • 9.3.4 Local area network
  • 9.3.5 Field area network
  • 9.3.6 Wide area network
  • 9.4 Communication infrastructure
  • 9.4.1 Wired communication
  • 9.4.1.1 Power line
  • 9.4.1.2 Twisted pair
  • 9.4.1.3 Optical fibre
  • 9.4.2 Wireless communication
  • 9.4.2.1 ZigBee
  • 9.4.2.2 Wireless local area network
  • 9.4.2.3 Wireless mesh
  • 9.4.2.4 Z-wave
  • 9.4.2.5 Satellite communication
  • 9.4.2.6 Cellular communication
  • 9.4.2.7 Worldwide interoperability for microwave access
  • 9.5 Communication protocols
  • 9.5.1 Internet communications protocol suite
  • 9.5.2 Modbus
  • 9.5.3 Distributed Network Protocol version 3.3
  • 9.5.4 IEC 61850
  • 9.6 Importance of communication technology in microgrid control
  • 9.7 Case study
  • 9.8 Conclusion
  • Nomenclature
  • References

Inspec keywords: protocols; Internet of Things; energy management systems; distributed power generation

Other keywords: telecommunication infrastructure; recent advancements; optimal operations; reliable operations; diagnose faults; microgrid environment; fault recorders; latency requirements; communication protocols; smart meters; reliability; IoT devices; microgrid communications - protocols; system architecture; local controllers; different communication equipment; three-layer architecture; specific requirements; energy management system; communication requirements; smart microgrid; monitor; middle layer; microgrid communication model

Subjects: Distributed power generation; Radio links and equipment; Protocols

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