Optimal sizing of energy storage system

Optimal sizing of energy storage system

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Energy storage system (ESS) as a growing technology plays a substantial role in operation and planning of microgrids. It is a viable option in smoothing the power of renewable energy sources (RESs), peak load mitigation, voltage control, frequency regulation and reliability enhancement of microgrid. Sizing of energy storages in microgrids is still a challenge. A non-optimal small capacity of storage system cannot ensure the proper operation of a microgrid. On the other side, a non-optimal large capacity may increase the cost and power losses in the system. In this chapter, different types of energy storages with their characteristics such as capacity, cost and efficiency are introduced. The necessity of energy storages in microgrids is explained. Optimal sizing of an ESS in a microgrid is discussed. The objective function (OF), system constraints and operation conditions are addressed.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Energy storage technologies in microgrids: types and characteristics
  • 8.2.1 Battery energy storage systems
  • Lithium-ion
  • Lead–acid
  • Sodium–sulphur
  • Vanadium redox batteries
  • 8.2.2 Flywheel
  • 8.2.3 Fuel cell
  • 8.2.4 Superconducting magnetic energy storage
  • 8.2.5 Supercapacitor
  • 8.2.6 Technology comparison
  • 8.3 Necessity of energy storage in microgrids
  • 8.3.1 Frequency regulation
  • 8.3.2 Voltage support
  • 8.3.3 Reliability enhancement
  • 8.3.4 Demand shifting and peak shaving
  • 8.3.5 Power smoothing
  • 8.3.6 Black start
  • 8.3.7 Storage trades/arbitrage
  • 8.3.8 Non-spinning reserve
  • 8.4 Case study
  • 8.4.1 System description and input data
  • 8.4.2 Uncertainty modelling
  • Demand uncertainty
  • Wind power generation uncertainty
  • Combined wind and load uncertainty
  • 8.4.3 Problem formulation
  • 8.4.4 Numerical results
  • Case 1: microgrid without ESS
  • Case 2: microgrid with non-optimised ESS
  • Case 3: microgrid with optimised ESS
  • Results comparison
  • 8.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: distributed power generation; frequency control; renewable energy sources; energy storage; voltage control

Other keywords: energy storage system; frequency regulation; optimal sizing; system constraints; nonoptimal large capacity; peak load mitigation; microgrid; reliability enhancement; objective function; nonoptimal small capacity

Subjects: Frequency control; Voltage control; Distributed power generation; Control of electric power systems

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