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Microgrid feasibility study and economics

Microgrid feasibility study and economics

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The microgrid concept is a promising approach to enable smarter energy grids. Microgrids are capable of managing and coordinating distributed generation, storage devices and loads in a more decentralized way reducing the need for centralized coordination and management entities. The increased control over communication network and digitization makes microgrids increasingly active, i.e. they can generate, sense, compute, communicate and actuate. This will also enable a more proactive role of consumers. Hence, efficient optimization and control of microgrid operation is extremely important. This chapter discusses how advanced control and optimization techniques can be used to realize the technical, economical and environmental potential of microgrids and facilitate more active demand management. Several aspects related to the feasibility study with particular focus on the control and operational aspects are discussed. The principal sources of uncertainty (e.g. energy demand, renewable generation) are taken into account to render microgrid operation less sensitive to unforeseen events. Simulation and experimental results show the potential economic and environmental benefits of the illustrated operational strategies.

Chapter Contents:

  • 14.1 Overview
  • 14.1.1 Outline of the chapter
  • 14.2 Theoretical background
  • 14.2.1 Model predictive control
  • 14.2.2 Two-stage stochastic programming
  • 14.3 Microgrid component modeling and constraints
  • 14.3.1 Nomenclature
  • 14.3.2 Loads
  • 14.3.2.1 Fixed loads
  • 14.3.2.2 Flexible loads
  • 14.3.3 Distributed generators
  • 14.3.4 Energy storage systems
  • 14.3.4.1 Electrical energy storage
  • 14.3.4.2 Thermal energy storage
  • 14.3.5 Multi-energy components
  • 14.3.5.1 Heat pumps
  • 14.3.5.2 Combined heat and power systems
  • 14.3.6 Electrical and thermal balance
  • 14.3.7 Interaction with the utility grid
  • 14.4 Microgrid operational strategies
  • 14.4.1 MPC-based energy-management system for operational optimization
  • 14.4.1.1 Uncertainty modeling
  • 14.4.1.2 Stochastic MPC formulation
  • 14.4.1.3 A stochastic programming approach with simple recourse
  • 14.4.1.4 MPC-based energy management for microgrid clusters
  • 14.4.2 MPC-based multi-objective AC optimal power flow
  • 14.5 Feasibility study aspects
  • 14.5.1 Design and operation
  • 14.5.2 Components and topology
  • 14.5.3 Active and reactive control strategies
  • 14.5.4 Data collection and processing
  • 14.5.5 Costing of microgrid components
  • 14.6 Case studies
  • 14.6.1 Experimental evaluation in Athens, Greece
  • 14.6.1.1 Description of the experimental set-up
  • 14.6.1.2 Experimental evaluation
  • 14.6.2 Steinkjer microgrid
  • 14.6.2.1 Semantic middleware architecture
  • 14.6.2.2 Experimental evaluation: a Demo Network in Steinkjer, Norway
  • 14.7 Conclusions
  • Appendix A
  • A. 1 Matrices
  • References

Inspec keywords: distributed power generation; power generation reliability; power distribution control; power grids; power generation control

Other keywords: efficient optimization; optimization techniques; digitization; microgrids; energy demand; technical potential; microgrid feasibility study; operational aspects; promising approach; communication network; smarter energy grids; active demand management; microgrid concept; economics; renewable generation; economical potential; management entities; microgrid operation; storage devices; advanced control; distributed generation; environmental potential; environmental benefits; potential economic benefits; centralized coordination

Subjects: Distribution networks; Distributed power generation; Reliability; Power system management, operation and economics; Control of electric power systems

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