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Black start and islanding operations of microgrid

Black start and islanding operations of microgrid

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This chapter describes different control techniques applied in microgrids (MGs) with responsive distributed energy resources (DER) for intentional and automatic islanding, deployment of a local black start strategy and including the reconnection to the upstream distribution network. The coordination of MG local resources, achieved through an appropriated network of controllers and communication system, enables some cells of the distribution system, with sufficient autonomy, to operate interconnected to the upstream network or autonomously in some circumstances. In this case, the potentialities of DER can be truly realized if the islanded operation is allowed and bottom-up black start functionalities are implemented. In particular, black start will be addressed for medium voltage (MV) MGs, made of several low voltage (LV) MGs, leading to the concept of a multi-MG (MMG). The chapter will then describe the black start sequence that can be implemented in such a grid considering also the contribution from electric vehicle storage.

Chapter Contents:

  • 13.1 Microgrid operational modes
  • 13.1.1 The microgrid
  • 13.1.1.1 Distributed energy resources in a microgrid
  • 13.1.1.2 Power electronic interfaces for distributed energy resources
  • 13.1.1.3 Microgrid control and management
  • 13.1.2 Microgrid hierarchical control for emergency operation
  • 13.1.3 Extending the concept–the multi-microgrid
  • 13.2 Microgrid islanding and reconnection
  • 13.2.1 Microgrid primary frequency and voltage control
  • 13.2.2 Electric vehicles contribution to primary frequency support
  • 13.2.3 Secondary control and emergency dispatch strategies
  • 13.2.4 Black start strategies in multi microgrids
  • 13.2.4.1 Typical strategies
  • 13.2.4.2 Synchronization issues
  • 13.2.5 Black start procedure
  • 13.2.5.1 Initial assumptions
  • 13.2.5.2 Sequence of actions
  • 13.3 Case study
  • 13.3.1 Microgrid islanding case study
  • 13.3.2 Multi microgrid black start case study
  • 13.3.2.1 Initial remarks
  • 13.3.2.2 Simulation and results analysis
  • 13.4 Concluding remarks
  • References

Inspec keywords: distributed power generation; power system interconnection; power generation control; power grids; electric vehicles; power distribution control

Other keywords: local black start strategy; microgrid; low voltage MGs; automatic islanding; medium voltage MGs; islanded operation; distributed energy resources; control techniques; black start sequence; upstream distribution network; MG local resources; multiMG; black start functionalities; intentional islanding; DER; communication system

Subjects: Power system control; Power system management, operation and economics; Distributed power generation; Control of electric power systems; Distribution networks

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