Atmospheric turbulence modelling, synthesis, and simulation

Atmospheric turbulence modelling, synthesis, and simulation

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The starting point of wind turbine operation is the incoming wind. Wind turbines are positioned in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), the lower approximately 1 km of the atmosphere; here the wind tends to be dominated by turbulent structures generated through the transfer of momentum and heat with the Earth's surface, as well as interaction with the free atmosphere above governed by large-scale motion. In this chapter, we will look at the turbulence affecting wind turbines from a turbulence -simulation point of view. This means that the focus will be on the properties of atmospheric turbulence which directly affect the performance and operation of wind turbines. In the ABL, turbulence is produced by mean wind shear and enhanced or destructed by buoyancy effects. This results in profiles of the various turbulence quantities across wind turbine rotors. Examples include the mean wind speed itself; second order moments, like variances and stresses; and turning of the mean wind speed and even length scales of turbulence. The degree to which a wind turbine will be affected by the turbulence in the ABL depends on its size such as rotor diameter and hub height, its power generating properties such as thrust coefficient, as well as on the applied controller which ultimately decides the operation window of the turbine. Simulations of atmospheric turbulence can guide us in quantifying the effects.

Chapter Contents:

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.1 Notation and ensemble averaging
  • 5.1.2 Defining the notion of turbulence simulations
  • 5.2 Simulating turbulence for wind turbine applications
  • 5.3 Turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer
  • 5.3.1 Surface-layer scaling and Monin–Obukhov similarity theory
  • 5.3.2 Above the surface layer: typical wind turbine rotor heights
  • 5.4 Which characteristics of turbulence affect wind turbines?
  • 5.5 Synthetic turbulence and standard industrial approach
  • 5.5.1 Statistical attempts
  • 5.5.2 Standard spectral models
  • Kaimal spectra with exponential coherence model
  • Mann model: rapid-distortion theory with eddy lifetime
  • 5.5.3 Extensions of the spectral-tensor model
  • Turbulence synthesis
  • 5.6 Large eddy simulation
  • 5.6.1 The fundamentals
  • 5.6.2 SGS models
  • Smagorinsky models: first-order and O(1.5) closure
  • Advanced Smagorinsky-type closures
  • Higher order SGS closures
  • Boundary conditions
  • 5.6.3 Numerical approach
  • 5.7 Final remarks
  • References

Inspec keywords: wind; atmospheric boundary layer; atmospheric turbulence; wind turbines

Other keywords: turbulent structures; mean wind speed; incoming wind; Earth surface; wind turbine operation; wind turbine rotors; atmospheric boundary layer; atmospheric turbulence modelling

Subjects: Winds and their effects in the lower atmosphere; Atmospheric boundary layer structure and processes; Convection, turbulence, and diffusion in the lower atmosphere

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