Structural control concept for load reduction of offshore wind turbines

Structural control concept for load reduction of offshore wind turbines

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This chapter introduces the structural control concept for load reduction of OWTs. Theories for both passive and active structural control are introduced. Particularly, a spar-type FOWT is used as the study case to demonstrate the load mitigation effectiveness of the proposed structural control methods. For the passive case, design optimization process is performed on a TMD installed in the spar platform, and the obtained numerical simulation results have indicated the both their effectiveness and limits regarding different system parameters and installations. Regarding the active case, a gain scheduling H2/H active structural full-state feedback controller is designed for an HMD installed at the tower top of a spar-type FOWT, aiming at both reducing tower bottom load and mitigating the aerodynamic disturbance. The results demonstrate that more load reduction could be achieved at the expense of more energy consumption. At the same time, this will bring the risk of instability. Moreover, the full-state feedback controller is not very practical from a technical point of view due to the lack of sensors and measurement inaccuracy.

Chapter Contents:

  • 4.1 Offshore wind energy development
  • 4.2 Offshore wind turbine design challenges
  • 4.2.1 Ultimate loads
  • 4.2.2 Fatigue loads
  • 4.2.3 Load reduction solutions
  • 4.3 Structural control methods
  • 4.3.1 Tuned mass dampers
  • 4.3.2 Tuned liquid column dampers
  • 4.3.3 Hybrid mass dampers
  • 4.4 Structural control of offshore wind turbines
  • 4.4.1 Dynamic modeling
  • 4.4.2 Passive structural control
  • Frequency and damping analysis
  • Exhaustive search
  • Simplex coding genetic algorithm
  • Simulation and analysis
  • 4.4.3 Active structural control
  • Model linearization
  • H2/H∞ control design
  • Gain scheduling
  • Low pass filter
  • Simulation analysis
  • 4.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: optimisation; load regulation; structural engineering; offshore installations; wind power plants; wind turbines

Other keywords: offshore wind turbines; measurement inaccuracy; load mitigation effectiveness; spar-type FOWT; energy consumption; HMD; structural control concept; full-state feedback controller; gain scheduling H2/H∞ active structural full-state feedback controller; TMD; spar platform; active structural control; passive structural control; OWT; load reduction; design optimization process; aerodynamic disturbance

Subjects: Construction industry; Optimisation; Control of electric power systems; Mechanical structures; Optimisation techniques; Power and plant engineering (mechanical engineering); Wind power plants; Control applications in building and civil engineering; Optimisation techniques

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