Control of solid-state transformer-enabled DC microgrids

Control of solid-state transformer-enabled DC microgrids

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With the world-wide energy shortage and deterioration of existing power grid, microgrid becomes one of the hottest research directions in the power engineering area. Considering DC nature of many key components in the smart grid, such as photovoltaic (PV), battery, fuel cell, super capacitor, etc., as well as many DC type loads, such as light-emitting diode, DC microgrid has received more attention recently since it brings the opportunity for boosting the efficiency by eliminating the unnecessary power conversion stages. However, the existing DC microgrid can only interface with the distribution system by using a heavy and bulky passive line frequency transformer plus a rectifier, which has large space and heavy weight. Developing a more compact and active grid interface to enable an intelligent DC microgrid system is still a research focus. In this chapter, the solid-state transformer (SST)-enabled DC microgrid is presented. In addition, two system control strategies, namely, the centralized power management and hierarchical power management strategies, are proposed. In addition, an improved control strategy is proposed for increasing the penetration of distributed renewable energy resources (DRER) integration, which controls SST-enabled DC microgrid as a solid-state synchronous machine (SSSM). With the proposed control concept, frequency and voltage stability are improved in case of high-power intermittence at either DC load or DRER side. Design examples are given to illustrate the main characteristics of the presented system and control schemes.

Chapter Contents:

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Solid-state transformer-based microgrid: architecture and benefits
  • 6.3 Centralized power management of solid-state transformer-based DC microgrid
  • 6.3.1 Power management strategy
  • 6.3.2 Case study
  • Passive grid interaction (Mode 3)
  • Transition from passive grid interaction mode to active grid interaction mode (Mode 2 to Mode 3)
  • Islanding mode (Mode 8)
  • Islanding mode transition (Mode 8 to Mode 9)
  • 6.3.3 Summary
  • 6.4 Hierarchical power management of solid-state transformer-enabled DC microgrid
  • 6.4.1 Power management strategy
  • Primary control algorithm
  • Secondary control algorithm
  • Tertiary control algorithm
  • 6.4.2 Case study of a small-scale DC microgrid
  • Case I: Primary control of the SST-enabled DC microgrid system
  • Case II: Secondary control of the SST-enabled DC microgrid system
  • Case III: First tertiary control
  • Case IV: Second tertiary control
  • Comparison of the two tertiary control methods
  • 6.4.3 Summary
  • 6.5 Control of SST-enabled DC microgrid as a solid-state synchronous machine (SSSM)
  • 6.5.1 Concept of the SSSM
  • 6.5.2 Frequency regulation
  • 6.5.3 Power up/down reserve support
  • 6.5.4 Voltage regulation
  • 6.5.5 Case study
  • Case I: Load change
  • Case II: Source change
  • Case III: Power up/down reserve
  • Case IV: Islanding and reconnection
  • 6.5.6 Summary
  • 6.6 Conclusion
  • References

Inspec keywords: distributed power generation; power system management; frequency stability; smart power grids; renewable energy sources; power transformers; solid-state rectifiers; energy conservation; voltage control; synchronous machines; power distribution control

Other keywords: passive line frequency transformer; solid-state transformer-enabled DC microgrids control; high-power intermittence; SSSM; SST-enabled DC microgrid; active grid interface; smart grid; distributed renewable energy resources; hierarchical power management; rectifier; frequency stability; DRER integration; solid-state synchronous machine; centralized power management; distribution system; voltage stability; intelligent DC microgrid system; power efficiency

Subjects: Voltage control; Distribution networks; Transformers and reactors; Power system management, operation and economics; Distributed power generation; Control of electric power systems; Power system control; Synchronous machines; Frequency control

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