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Bifacial modules: design options, characterisation and reliability

Bifacial modules: design options, characterisation and reliability

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Bifacial modules can be applied for large PV plants as well as for residential (flat white roof) and more specific BIPV (facade) applications and can also open up new PV application opportunities like in sound barriers or other vertical installations (fences, balconies).For bifacial PV plants, the objective is to exploit the main bifacial benefit which is a large reduction of LCOE (due to higher energy yield) with a minimal technical change or investment.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Bifacial PV modules: design and characterisation
  • 3.1.1 Design considerations for bifacial modules
  • 3.1.2 Cell-to-module loss analysis in bifacial PV modules
  • 3.2 Optical module design options with bifacial cells and light management
  • 3.2.1 Optical module design options with bifacial cells
  • 3.2.2 Light management in bifacial modules
  • 3.3 Electrical design and interconnect options with bifacial cells: half-cut cells, multi-busbar and multi-wire concepts
  • 3.3.1 Multi-busbar interconnection
  • 3.3.2 Half cells and smaller
  • 3.3.3 Shingles and other stacking options
  • 3.3.4 Interconnection of back-contact solar cells
  • 3.4 Characterisation of bifacial devices
  • 3.4.1 Bifacial characterisation
  • Bifacial current generation mechanism
  • Measurement approach
  • I–V characterisation of bifacial devices in practice
  • 3.4.2 Imaging methods
  • Electroluminescence
  • Infrared and dark lock-in thermography
  • 3.4.3 Outdoor measurements on single modules
  • Increased albedo
  • Tilt
  • 3.5 Modelling of bifacial modules
  • 3.5.1 Electrical models
  • 3.5.2 Thermal behaviour
  • 3.5.3 Optical modelling
  • 3.6 Reliability and durability of bifacial modules
  • 3.6.1 Effect of higher output current
  • Requirements for the cells architecture
  • Requirements for the module architecture
  • 3.6.2 Heat management
  • Focus on nominal operating cell temperature
  • Impact on module lifetime
  • Focus on junction box
  • 3.6.3 Selection of module materials for bifacial modules
  • Influence of module materials to lifetime
  • Impact of material selection to module power
  • 3.6.4 Discussion on current IEC 61215 testing and its suitability for bifacial modules
  • 3.6.5 General discussion on safety aspects
  • References

Inspec keywords: building integrated photovoltaics; reliability; solar cells

Other keywords: large PV plants; LCOE; specific BIPV applications; PV application opportunities; design options; main bifacial benefit; minimal technical change; flat white roof; vertical installations; bifacial modules

Subjects: Buildings (energy utilisation); Photoelectric conversion; solar cells and arrays; Solar cells and arrays; Reliability; Solar power stations and photovoltaic power systems

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