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Bifacial cells

Bifacial cells

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In 2017, the majority of the PV modules installed are based on p-type silicon solar cells that feature a full-area aluminum rear contact and back surface field (BSF). Because of their fully covered, opaque rear side, these cells are unable to convert the light that falls on the rear side of the solar cells into electricity. On the other hand, solar cells with a rear side that is only partially covered with metallization (the so-called bifacial solar cells) are able to simultaneously and efficiently convert light that illuminates the solar cell from the front side as well as from the rear side. In this chapter, a short review of the history, physics, characterization, as well as a description of the five most common cell architectures of n- and p-type bifacial solar cells is given.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 History of bifacial cells (from 1960 to 2016)
  • 2.3 Characteristics of bifacial cells
  • 2.3.1 Bifaciality factor
  • 2.3.2 Parameters influencing the bifaciality factor φ
  • Rear surface texture and ARC
  • Metallization
  • BSF
  • Base resistivity and lifetime
  • 2.3.3 Design of bifacial cells
  • 2.4 Characterization of bifacial cells
  • 2.4.1 Measuring bifacial cells
  • 2.4.2 IV measurements under bifacial irradiation
  • 2.5 Different types of bifacial solar cells
  • 2.5.1 Heterojunction solar cells
  • Cell structure and processing details
  • Metallization and module interconnection
  • Efficiency and bifaciality potential
  • Ease of implementation in the existing technology
  • 2.5.2 n-PERT solar cells
  • Cell structure and processing details
  • Junction formation
  • Passivation
  • Metallization and module interconnection
  • Efficiency and bifaciality potential
  • 2.5.3 p-PERT solar cells
  • PERT solar cell with n+ -p-p+ structure
  • Processing details junction formation
  • 2.5.4 p-PERC+ solar cells
  • Cell structure and processing details
  • PERC+ Al contact formation
  • Efficiency potential and bifaciality
  • PERC+ module interconnection
  • 2.5.5 Bifacial back contact solar cells
  • Cell structure
  • Metallization and module interconnection
  • Efficiency and bifaciality potential
  • 2.6 Industrial solar cell technology roadmap
  • 2.6.1 Industry status in 2017
  • 2.6.2 Solar cell technology predictions (ITRPV)
  • References

Inspec keywords: history; solar cells; reviews

Other keywords: characterization; common cell architectures; review; n-type bifacial solar cells; history; solar cell physics; p-type bifacial solar cells; PV modules; partial metallization

Subjects: Photoelectric conversion; solar cells and arrays; Solar cells and arrays; Reviews and tutorial papers; resource letters

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