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Wind and solar energy

Wind and solar energy

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In this chapter, we are focusing on the understanding of the basic characteristics of the Sun and the solar radiation, solar energy conversion, wind velocity, wind power, and wind energy conversion systems, the methods to estimate, analyze, and assess the solar or wind energy resource potential. The solar radiation has directional characteristics that are defined by a set of angles that determine the angle of incidence of the radiation on a surface. After completing this chapter, the readers are able to compute these angles and to estimate the available solar radiation incident on horizontal and tilted surfaces. Wind regime and wind characteristics are influenced by synoptic circulation, mesoscale dynamics, being strongly shaped by the local circulation, topography, and conditions. The most important characteristics of wind are its variability and intermittency on a broad range of spatiotemporal scales. The assessment of wind energy potential, design, or operation of wind energy conversion systems requires in-depth knowledge of wind regime and characteristics. In this chapter, we have also included those topics that are based on the extraterrestrial radiation and the geometry of the Earth and Sun. Knowledge about the effects of the atmosphere on the solar radiation, measurement techniques, direct, diffuse, and global radiation are also presented and discussed. Similar topics, such as wind velocity statistics, wind velocity measurements are included and discussed in this chapter. After successfully completing this chapter, the readers or students have a good understating, and become familiar with solar and wind energy system parameters, characteristics, principles of operation, performances, and estimation methods. They also are able to analyze and perform basic calculations and design of wind energy and/or solar energy conversion systems, estimates and assess wind or solar energy potential, select appropriate systems and/or components for a specific application.

Chapter Contents:

  • Objectives and abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Wind energy
  • 9.2.1 Wind energy resources
  • 9.2.2 Air density, temperature, turbulence, and atmospheric stability effects
  • 9.2.3 Wind shear, wind profile, wind gust, and other meteorological effects
  • 9.2.4 Wind velocity statistics
  • 9.2.5 Wind statistical models
  • 9.2.5.1 Methods for Weibull model fits
  • 9.2.6 Rayleigh probability distribution
  • 9.3 Wind direction
  • 9.4 Wind energy estimation
  • 9.5 Wind energy conversion systems
  • 9.5.1 Wind energy conversion system components
  • 9.6 Solar energy
  • 9.6.1 Solar resources
  • 9.7 Photovoltaics
  • 9.7.1 PV cell manufacturing technologies
  • 9.7.2 PV modules and arrays
  • 9.7.3 PV system configuration and sizing
  • 9.8 Chapter summary
  • References and further readings
  • Questions and problems

Inspec keywords: velocity measurement; wind power; solar power; sunlight; solar energy conversion

Other keywords: solar radiation; solar wind; direct radiation; directional characteristics; mesoscale dynamics; angle of incidence; wind velocity statistics; extraterrestrial radiation; spatiotemporal scales; wind energy system parameters; solar energy conversion; wind energy conversion systems; measurement techniques; solar energy potential; global radiation; wind velocity measurements; wind power

Subjects: Wind energy; Sunlight and atmospheric radiation; Velocity, acceleration and rotation measurement; Energy resources; Solar energy; Velocity, acceleration and rotation measurement

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