Motor control and protection, drives, and applications

Motor control and protection, drives, and applications

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Electric motors are used in a vast range of applications, types, shapes, sizes, or constructions. In our power systems, the generators in power plants are connected to a three-phase network while most of the industrial equipment and largeor medium-size electric motors, pumps in heating, water and air conditioning systems, refrigerator, dryers, vacuum cleaner or most of the appliances are connected to a single phase AC, switched on or off by simple contactors. In cars, a DC battery is providing power to the starter motor, windshield wiper motors, and other car subsystems. The DC car motors are usually activated by a relay switch without any control. However, many of other electric motor applications often require advanced control, depending on the application and the load requirements. Motor protection and control are essential functions for proper operation and safeguard electric motors and their connection cables from the effects and/or damages caused by overheating or improper motor operation. For example, overload, stalling, and single-phasing result in overheating, and the motor protection must detect these conditions and prevent their effects. Electric motors are the major prime-mover in industrial and commercial facilities and in building electrical, mechanical, and thermal systems. Most of the electric losses occur in the end user, and electric machines and drives are a large contributor. Electric motors and drives are important electrical system components, being the interface between the electrical and mechanical systems in an industrial process, a building, industrial, or commercial facility. These are creating unique challenges for motor control and protection which, in turn, led to the solutions that are critical in all electrical motor applications. By completing this chapter, the readers must have a good understanding of the electric motor control, starting, stopping, speed changes, breaking, and motor protection methods. It is very important to understand motor characteristics, in order to choose the right one for the application requirements. The learning objectives for this chapter include understanding the basic principles of operation of AC and DC motors, understand their operation and basic characteristics, control and protection methods and schemes, compute their electrical and mechanical parameters using the equivalent circuit, and to be able to select the most appropriate electric motor for a specific application. Readers must also understand and learn the structure, configurations, characteristics, and the operation of electric drives and their major applications. The chapter also includes appropriate references to the electric motor specifications of the codes and standards.

Chapter Contents:

  • Objectives and abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Poly-phase induction motor control schemes and methods
  • 8.2.1 Induction motor starting methods
  • 8.2.2 Voltage drop during the start-up of induction motors
  • 8.2.3 Induction motor speed control
  • 8.3 Starting and speed control of synchronous motors
  • 8.4 AC motor protection methods
  • 8.4.1 Unbalanced phase motor protection
  • 8.4.2 Low voltage, undervoltage, voltage drop, and break motor protection
  • 8.5 Single-phase motor control
  • 8.6 DC motor protection and control methods
  • 8.7 Electric drives
  • 8.8 Summary
  • References and further readings
  • Questions and problems

Inspec keywords: motor protection; starting; DC motor drives; brushless DC motors; automobiles; machine control

Other keywords: overheating motor operation; starter motor; air conditioning systems; building electrical systems; medium-size electric motors; electrical system components; electric motor applications; electric losses; motor protection methods; electric motor specifications; application requirements; water; electric machines; electric motor control; improper motor operation; DC car motors; thermal systems; motor characteristics; mechanical parameters; mechanical systems; power systems; electrical motor applications; electrical parameters; electric drives

Subjects: Control of electric power systems; Drives; d.c. machines

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